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This Blog is related to blogger's academic life specially related with his research field (Computational Sanskrit & Kashmir Shavism). It explores Computaional aspects of Sanskrit and also the theology, philosophy and tradition from the viewpoint of various schools, texts, and teachers of Kashmir Shaiva Philosophy.It contains the comparative cosmological views of Sankhya & KS. This blog also reflects the blogger's personal experience with
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Saturday 31 October 2009

Conferences

84th Indian Philosophical Congress, Mumbai University.



Saturday 19 September 2009

Nobel Prize Winners

Nobel Prize Winners Physics

Year Name Nations
1901 Wilhelm C.Roentgen Germany
1902 Hendrik A.Lorentz & Pieter Zeeman Dutch
1903 Antoine Henri Becquerel, Pierre Curie and Marie Curie France
1904 John W. Strutt, Lord Rayleigh Britain
1905 Philipp E.A.Von Lenard Germany
1906 Sir. Joseph J.Thomson Britain
1907 Albert A.Michelson U.S
1908 Gabriel Lippmann Franch
1909 Carl F. Braun
Guglielmo Marconi Germany
Italy
1910 Johannes D. Van der Waals Dutch
1911 Wilhelm Wien Germany
1912 Nils G. Dalen Sweden
1913 Heike kamerlingh Onnes Dutch
1914 Max von Laue Germany
1915 Sir William H. Bragg, Sir William H. Bragg Britain
1917 Charles G. Barkla Britain
1918 Max K.E.L. Planck Germany
1919 Johnnes Stark Germany
1920 Charles E.Guillaume France
1921 Albert Einstein Germany - U.S.
1922 Niels Bohr Danish
1923 Robert A. Millikan U.S
1924 Karl M.G. Siegbahn Sweden
1925 James Franck, Gustav Hertz Germany
1926 Jean B. Perrin France
1927 Arthur H.Compton
Charles T.R Wilson U.S
Britain
1928 Owen W. Richardson Britain
1929 Prince Louis-victor de Broglie France
1930 Sir Chandrasekhara V. Raman India
1932 Werner Heisenberg Germany
1933 Paul A.M. Dirac
Erwin Schrodinger Britain
Australia
1935 Sir James Chadwick Britain
1936 Carl D. Anderson
Victor F. Hess U.S
Australia
1937 Cliton J. Davisson
Sir Geroge P. Thomson U.S.
Britain
1938 Enrico Fermi Italy
U.S
1939 Ernest O. Lawrence U.S.
1943 Otto Stern U.S
1944 Isidor Issac Rabi U.S.
1945 Wolfgang Pauli U.S
1946 Percy Williams Bridgman U.S.
1947 Sir Edward V. Appleton Britain
1948 Patrick M.S.Blackett Britain
1949 Hideki Yukawa Japan
1950 Cecil f. Powell Britain
1951 Sir John D. Cockroft
Ernest T.S.Walton Britain
Iran
1952 Felix Bloch
Edward M. Purcell U.S
1953 Frits Zernike Dutch
1954 Max Born
Walter Bothe Britain
Germany
1955 Polykarp Kusch,
Willis E.Lamb U.S
1956 John Bardeen
Walter H. Brattain
William Shockley U.S
1957 Tsung-dao-Lee
Chenning Yang U.S
1958 Pavel Cherenkov
Ilya Frank,
Igor Y. Tamm USSR
1959 Owen Chamberlain
Emilio G.Segre U.S
1960 Donald A. Glaser U.S
1961 Robert Hofstadter
Rudolf L. Mossbauer U.S
Germany
1962 Lev. D. Landau USSR
1963 Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Eugene P. Wigner
J. Hans D. Jensen U.S

Germany
1964 Nikolai G. Basov, aleksander M. Prochorov
Charles H. Townes USSR
U.S
1965 Richard P. Feynman Julian S. Schwinger
Shinichiro Tomonaga U.S
Japan
1966 Alfred Kastler Franch
1967 Hans A. Bethe U.S
1968 Luis W. Alvarez U.S
1969 Murray Gell-Mann U.S
1970 Louis Neel,br>Hammes Alfven France
Switzerland
1971 Dennis Gabor Britain
1972 John Bardeen
Leon N. Cooper
John R. Schrieffer U.S
1973 Ivar Giaever
Leo Esaki
Vrian D. Josephson U.S
Japan
Britain
1974 Martin Ryle, Antony Hewish Britain
1975 James Rainwater
Ben Mottelson
Aage Bohr U.S
U.S-Danish
Danish
1976 Burton Richter
Samuel C.C Ting U.S
1977 John H.Van Vleck,Philip W. Anderson
Nevill F. Mott U.S
Britain
1978 Pyotr Kapitsa
Arno Penzias, Robert Wilson USSR
U.S
1979 steven Weinberg, Sheldon L. Glashow
Abdus Salam U.S
Pakistan
1980 James W. Cronin
Val L. fitch U.S
1981 Nicolass Bloembergen, Arthur Schaalow
Kai M.Siegbahn U.S
Sweden
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson U.S
1983 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
William a. Fowler Indian U.S Citizen
U.S
1984 Carlo Rubbia
Simonvan der Meer Italy
Dutch
1985 Klaus von Klitzing West Germany
1986 Ernest Ruska,br>Gerd Binnig
Heinrich Rohrer Germany
West Germany
Swiss
1987 K.Alex Muller
J. Georg Bednorz Switzerland
West Germany
1988 Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Jack Steinberger U.S
1989 Norman F. Ramsey
Hans G. Dehmelt
Wo9lfgang Paul U.S.
Grmany-U.S.
Germany
1990 Richard E. Taylor
Jerome I. Griedman, Hendry W.Kendall Canada
U.S
1991 Pierre - Giles de Gennes France

1992 Georges Charpak Poland - France
1993 Joseph H. Taylor, Russell A. Hulse U.S.
1994 Bertram N. Brockhouse
Clifford G. Shull Canada
U.S
1995 Martin L. Perl of Standfrod University and Frederick Reins of the University of California Switzerland
U.S.
1996 David M.Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, Robert C.Richardson U.S
1997 Steven Chu, William D. Phillips
Claude Cohen Tannoudji U.S.
France
1998 Prof. Robert B. Laughlin, Prof Horst L. Stormer, Prof. Daniel C. Tsui U.S
1999 Gerardus T. Hooft, Martinus J.D. Veltman Netherland
2000 Mr.Zhores I.Alferov
Herbert Kroemer
Jack Kilby Russia
German

2001 Eric A. Cornell
Wolfgang Ketterle
Carl E. Wieman
USA
German
USA
2002 Raymond Davis Jr.
Riccardo Giacconi
Masatoshi Koshiba USA
USA
Japan


Nobel Prize Winners - Chemistry

Year Name Country
1901 Jacobus H. Vant's Hoff Dutch
1902 Emil fischer Germany
1903 Svante A. Arrhenius Sweden
1904 Sir William Ramsay Britain
1905 Adolf von Beayer Germany
1906 Henri Moissan France
1907 Eduard Buchner Germany
1908 Ernest Rutherford Britain
1909 Wilhelm Ostwald Germany
1910 Otto Wallach Germany
1911 Marie Curie Poland
Franch
1912 Victor Grignard, Paul Sabatier Franch
1913 Alfred Werner Switzerland
1914 Theodore W. Richards U.S
1915 Richard M. Willstatter Germany
1918 Fritz Haber Germany
1920 Walther H. Nernst Germany
1921 Frederick Soddy Britain
1922 Francis W. Aston Britain
1923 Fritz Pregl Australia
1925 Richard A. Zsigmondy Germany
1926 theodor Svedberg sweden
1927 Heinrich O. Wieland Germany
1928 Adolf O. R. Windaus Germany
1929 Sir Arthur Harden
Han von Euler-Chelpin Britain
Sweden
1930 Hans Fischer Germany
1931 Friedrich Berguis, Karl Bosch Germany
1932 Irving Langmuir U.S
1934 Harold C. Urey U.S
1935 Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot Curie Franch
1936 Peter J.W. Debyr Dutch
1937 Walter N. Haworth
Paul Karrer Britain
Swistzerland
1938 Richard Kuhn Germany
1939 Adolf F.J. Butenandt
Leopold Ruzicka Britain
switzerland
1943 Georg de Hevesy Hungary
1944 Otto Hahn Germany
1945 Artturi I, Virtanen Finnish
1946 James B. Summer, John H.Northrop, Wendell M. Stanley U.S
1947 Sir Robert Robinson Britain
1948 Arne W.K. Tiselius Sweden
1949 William F. Giauque Switzerland
1950 Kurt Alder, Otto P.H. Diels Germany
1951 Edwin M. McMillan, Glenn T. Seaborg U.S
1952 Archer J.P. Martin, Richard L.M. Synjge U.S
1953 Hermann Staudinger Germany
1954 Linus C. Pauling U.S
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud U.S
1956 Sir Cyril N. Hinshelwood,
Nikolai N. Semenov Britain
USSR
1957 Sir Alexander R. Todd Britain
1958 Frederick Sanger Britain
1959 Jarpslav Heyr9vsky Czech
1960 Willard F. Libby U.S
1961 Melvini calvin U.S
1962 John C. Kendrew, Max F. Perutz Britain
1963 Giulio Natta
Kal Ziegler Italy
Germany
1964 Dorothy C. Hodgkin Britain
1965 Robert B. Woodward U.S.
1966 Robert S.Mulliken U.S
1967 Manfred Eigen
Ronald G. W.Norrish, George Porter Germany
Britain
1968 Lars Onsager U.S
1969 Derek H.R. Barton
Odd Hassel Britain
Norway
1970 Luis F. Leloir
1971 Gerhard Herzberg Canada
1972 Chriistian B. Aninsen, Stanford Moore, William H.Stein U.S
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer
Geoffrey Wilkinson West Germany
Britain
1974 Paul J. Flory U.S
1975 John Cornforth, Austral
Vladimir Prelog, Yugo Britain
Switzerland
1976 William N. Lipscomb U.S
1977 Ilya Prigogine Belgium
1978 Peter Mitchell Britain
1979 Herbert C. Brown
Geroge Wittig Britain
U.S.
Germany
1980 Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert
Frederick Sanger U.S
U.K
1981 Kenichi Fukui
Roald Hoffmann Japan
U.S.
1982 Aaron Klug South Africa
1983 Henry Tabue Canada
1984 Bruce Merrifield U.S
1985 Herbert A. Hauptman, Jerome Karle U.S
1986 Dudley Herchbach, Yuan T. Lee,
John C. Polanyi U.S.
Canada
1987 Donald J. Cram, Charles J. Pepdersen
Jean-Marie Lehn Britain
U.S.
French
1988 Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, Hartmut Michel West Germany
1989 Thomas R. Cech, Sidney Altman Britain
U.S
1990 Elias James Corey U.S
1991 Richard R. Ernst Switzerland
1992 RudolphA. Marcus Canada, U.S
1993 Kary B. Mullis Michael Smith U.S.
Britain-Canada
1994 George A.Olah U.S
1995 Paul Crutzeen
Mario Molina, F. Sherwood Roland Netherland
U.S
1996 Robert Curl Jr., Richard Smallery
Sir Harold Kroto U.S.
britain
1997 Paul Boyer
John Walker
Dane Jensskou U.S
Britain
Denmark
1998 Dr.Walter Kohn
Dr. John A. Pople Australia-U.S
Britain-U.S
1999 Ahmed Zewail USA
2000 Alan Heeger
Alan G. Macidiarmid
Hideki Shirakawa USA
USA
Japan
2001 William S. Knowles
Ryoji Noyori
K. Barry Sharpless
USA
Japan
USA
2002 John B. Fenn
Koichi Tanaka
Kurt Wüthrich USA
Japan
Switzerland


Nobel Prize Winners-Medicine & Physiology



Year Name Country
1901 Emil A. Von Behring Germany
1902 Sir Ronald Ross Britain
1903 Niels R. Finsen Danish
1904 Ivan P. Pavlov Russia
1905 Robert Koch Germany
1906 Camillo Golgi
Santiago Ramon Y Cajal Italy
Spain
1907 Charles L.A. Laveran France
1908 Paul Ehrlich
Elie Metchnikoff Germany
France
1909 Emil T. Kocher Switzerland
1910 Albrecht Kossel Grmany
1911 Allvar Gullstrand Sweden
1912 Alexis Carrel France
1913 Charles R. Richet France
1914 Robert Barany Australia
1919 Jules Border Belgium
1920 Schack A.S.Krogh Dan
1922 Archibald V. Hill
Otto F. Meyerhof Britain
Germany
1923 Frederick G. Banting
John J.R.Macleod Canada
Scotland
1924 willem Einthoven Dutch
1926 Johannes A.G Fibiger Dan
1927 JUllius Wagner-Jauregg Australia
1928 Charles J.H. Nicolle France
1929 Christiaan Eijkman
Sir Frederick G.Hopkings Dutch
Britain
1930 Karl Landsteiner U.S
1931 Otto H. Warburg Germany
1932 Edgar D. Adrian, Sir Charles S. Sherrington Britain
1933 Thomas H.organ U.S.
1934 George R. Minot, William P. Murphy, G.H. Whipple U.S.
1935 Hans Spemann Germany
1936 Sir Henry H. Dale
Otto Lowei Britain
U.S.
1937 Albert Szent-Gyorgyl Honkong-U.S.
1938 Cornelle J.F. Heymans Belgium
1939 Gerhard Domagk Germany
1943 Henrik C.P. Dam
Edward A. Doisy Dan
U.S.
1944 Joseph Erlanger, Herbert S.Gasser U.S.
1945 Ernst B. Chain Sir Alexander Fleming, Sir Howard W. Florey Britain
1946 Hermann J.Muller U.S.
1947 Carl F.Cori, Gerty T. Cormboth
Bernardo A. Houssay U.S.
Aregentina
1948 Paul H. Muller Switzweland
1949 Walter R. Hess, Switzerland
1950 Philip S. Hench, Edward C. Kendall
Tadeus reichstein U.S.
Switzerland
1951 Max Theiler U.S
1952 Selman A. Waksman U.S.
1953 Hans A. Krebs
Fritz A. Lipmann Britain
U.S.
1954 John F.Enders, Frederick C. Robbins, Thomas H. Weller U.S
1955 AlexH.T Theorell Sweden
1956 Andre F. Coumand,Dickinson W.Richards Jr.
Wener Forssmann U.S.
Germany
1957 Daniel Bovet Italy
1958 George W. Beadle, Edward L. Tatum, Joshua Lederberg U.S.
1959 Arthur Kornberg, Severo Ochoa U.S.
1960 Sir F MacFarlane Bument
Peter B. Medawar Australia
Britain
1961 Georg von Bekesy U.S.
1962 Francis H.C.rick, Maurice H.F. Wilkins
James D. Wastson Britain
U.S.
1963 Sir John C.Eccles
Alan L. Hodgkin, Andrew F. Huxley Australia
Britain
1964 Konard E.Bloch
Feodor Letnen U.S
Germany
1965 Francois Jacob, Andre Lwoff, Jsvquew Monod France
1966 Charles B. Huggins, Francis Peyton Rous U.S.
1967 Ragnar Granit
Haldan Keffer Hartline, George Wals Sweden
U.S.
1968 Robert W. Holly, Marshall W. Nirenberg
H. Gobind Khorana U.S.
Indian U.S. citizen
1969 Max Delbruck, Alfred D. Hershey, Salvador Luria U.S.
1970 Julius Axelrod
Sir Bernard Katz
Ulfvon Euler U.S.
Britain
Sweden
1971 Earl W. Sutherland Jr. U.S.
1972 Gerald M. Edelman,
Rodney R.Porter U.S.
Britain
1973 Karl Von Frisch
Konrad Lorenz
Nikolass Tinbergen Geramny
Germany-Australia
Britain
1974 Albert Claude, Lux
George Emil Palade
Christian Rene De Duve U.S.
Rom-U.S.
Belgium
1975 Davidaltimore, Howard Temin
Renato Dulbecco U.S.Italy-U.S
1976 Baruch S.Blumberg, Daniel Carleton Gajdusek U.S.
1977 Rosalyn S. Yalow, Roger C.L. Guilemin, Andrew V. Schaly U.S.
1978 Daniel Nathans, Hamilton O.Smith
Werner Arber U.S.
Switzerland
1979 Alian M. Cormack
Geoffrey N. Hounsfield U.S.
Britain
1980 Baruj Benacerraf, George Snell
Jean Dausset U.S
France
1981 Roger W. Sperry, David H. Hubel, Tosten N. Wisel U.S.
1982 Sune Bergstrom, Bengt Samuelsson
John R.Vane Sweden
Britan
1983 Barbara McClintock U.S.
1984 Cesar Milstein,
Georges J.F. Koehler
Niels K. Jerne, Britain-Argentina
Germany
Britain
1985 Michael S. Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein U.S.
1986 Rita Levi-Montalcini
Stanley Cohen Italy-U.S.
U.S.
1987 Susumu Tonegawa Japan
1988 Gertrude B. Elion, GEorge H. Hitchings
Sir James Black U.S.
Britain
1989 J. Michael Bishop, Harold E. Varmus U.S.
1990 Joseph E. Murray,E. Donnall Thomas U.S.
1991 Edwin Neher, Beryt Sakmann Germany
1992 Edmond H. Fisher, Edwin G. Krebs
Stanley Cohen U.S.
1993 Philip A.Sharp
Richard J. Roberts U.S.
Britain
1994 Alfred Q. Gilman, Martin Rodbell U.S.
1995 Edward Lewis, Eric Wieschaus
Christiane Nusslein Volhard U.S.
Germany
1996 Peter Doherty
Rolf Zinkernagel Australia
Switzerland
1997 Staneley Prusiner U.S.
1998 Robert F.Furchgott, Louis J.Ignarro, Ferid Murad U.S.
1999 Guenter Blobel USA
2000 Dr.Arvid Carlsson
Dr.Paul Greengard
Dr.Eric Kandel Sweden
U.S
U.S
2001 Leland H. Hartwell
Tim Hunt
Sir Paul Nurse USA
UK
UK
2002 Sydney Brenner
H. Robert Horvitz
John E. Sulston UK
USA
UK


Nobel Prize Winners Peace

Year Name Country
1901 Jean H. Dunant
Frederic Paassy Switzerland
France
1902 Elie Ducommum, Chales A. Gobat Switzerland
1903 Sir William R. Cremer Britain
1904 Institute of International law
1905 Baroness Bertha von Suttner Australia
1906 Theodore Roosevelt U.S.
1907 Ernesto T. Moneta
Louis Renault Italy
France
1908 Klas P.Arnoldson
Fredr5ik Bajer Sweden
Danish
1909 Auguste M.F. Beernaert
Paul H.B.B.d'Estournelles de Constant Belgium
France
1910 Permanent Internatiol Peace Bureau
1911 Tobias M.C. Asser
Alfred H.Fried Dutch
Australia
1912 Elihu Root U.S.
1913 Henri La Fontaine Belgium
1917 International Red Cross
1919 Woodrow Wilson U.S.
1920 Leon V.A. Bourgeois France
1921 Karl H. Branting
Christian L.Lange Sweden
Norway
1922 Fridtjof Nansen Norway
1925 Sir J. Austen Chamberlain
Chstlrd G. Dawes
U.S.
1926 Aristide Briand
Gustav Stresemann France
Germany
1927 Ferdinand E. Buisson
Ludwig Quidde France
Germany
1929 Frank B. Kellogg U.S.
1930 Nathan Soderblom Sweden
1931 Jane Addams, Nicholas Murray Butler U.S.
1933 Sir Norman Angell Britain
1934 Arthur Henderson Britain
1935 Carl von Ossietzky Germany
1936 Carlos de Saavedra Lamas Argentina
1937 Viscount Cecil of Chelwood Britain
1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees
1944 International Red Cross
1945 Cordell Hull U.S.
1946 Emily G. Balch, John R. Mott U.S.
1947 Friends Service Council
American Friends Service Committee Britain
U.S.
1949 Lord John Boyd Orr of Brechin Mearns Britain
1950 Ralph J. Bunche U.S.
1951 Leon Jouhaux France
1952 Albert Schweitzer France
1953 George C. Marshall U.S.
1954 Office of the UN hign Commissioner of Refugees Sw
1957 Lester B. Pearson Canada
1958 Georges Pire Belgium
1959 Philip J. Noel-Baker Britain
1960 Albert J.Luthuil South African
1961 Dag Hammarskjold Sweden
1962 Linus C. Pauling U.S.
1963 International Red Cross, League of Red Cross Societies
1964 Martin Luther King Jordon-U.S.
1965 U.N. Children's Fund(UNICEF)
1968 Rene Cassin Franch
1969 Internationa Labour Organisation
1970 Norman E. Borlaug U.S.
1971 Willy Brandt West Germany
1973 Henry Kissinger
Le Due Tho, N.Vietmamese U.S.
1974 Eisaku Sato
Sean MacBride Japan
Iran
1975 Andrei Sakharov USSR
1976 Mairead Corrigan, Betty Williams N. Iran
1977 Amnesty International
1978 Anwar Sadat,
Menachem Begin England
Isreal
1979 Mother Teresa Albanian - Indian
1980 Adolfo Perez Esquivel Argentina
1981 Office of UN high Commissioner for Refugees
1982 Alva Myrdal
Alfonso Garcia Robles Swedish
Mexico
1983 Lech Walesa Poland
1984 Bishop Desmond Tutu South Africa
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War U.S.
1986 Elie Wiesel Romanian-U.S.
1987 Oscar Arias Sanchez Costa Rican
1988 United NationsPeace keeping Forces
1989 Dalai Lama Tibetan
1990 Mikhail S. Gorbachev USSR
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi Myanmarese
1992 Rigoberta Menchu Guatemalan
1993 Frederik W.de Klerk, Nelson Mandela South Arican
1994 Yasir Arafat
Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin Palestine
Isreal
1995 Joseph Rotblat U.K.
1996 Roman Catholic Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Nelo East Tomor
1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)
and its coordinator Jody Williams
1998 David Trimble, Jonh Hume Netherland
2000 Kim Dae-Jung South Korea
2001 United Nations Kofi Annan
Ghana
2002 Jimmy Carter


Nobel Prize Winners - Literature



Year Name Country
1901 Rene F.A. Sully Prudhomme Franch
1902 Theodor Mommsen Germany
1903 Bjornsterne Bjornson Norway
1904 Frederic Mistral
Jose Echegaray Franch
Spain
1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz Poland
1906 Giosue Carducci Italy
1907 Rudyard Kipling Britain
1908 Rudolf C. Eucken Germany
1909 Selma Lagerlof Sweden
1910 Paul J.L.Heyse Germany
1911 Maurice Maeterlinck Belgium
1912 Gerhart Hauptmann Germany
1913 Rabindranath Tagore India
1915 Romain Rolland France
1916 Verner von Heidenstam Sweden
1917 Karl A. Gjellerup, Henrik Pontoppidan Danish
1919 Carl F.G. Spitteler Switzerland
1920 Kunt Hamsun Norway
1921 Anatolle France France
1922 Jacinto Benavente Spanish
1923 William Butker Iran
1924 Wladyslaw S. Reymont Poland
1925 George Bernard Shaw Iran-Britain
1926 Grazia Deledda Itally
1927 Henri Bergson France
1928 Sigrid Undset Norway
1929 Thomas Mann German
1930 Sinclair Lewis U.S.
1931 Erik A. Karlfeldt Sweden
1932 John Galsworthy Britain
1933 Ivan A. Bunin USSR
1934 Luigi Pirandello Italy
1936 Eugene O'Neill U.S.
1937 Roger Martin de Gard France
1938 Pearl S.Buck U.S.
1939 Frans E. Sillanpa Finnish
1944 Johannes V. Jensen Danish
1945 Gabriels Mistral Chilean
1946 Hermann Hesse Switzwerland
1947 Andre Gide France
1948 T.S.Eliot Britain
1949 william Fauljner U.S.
1950 Bertrand Russell Britain
1951 RarF.Lagerkvist Sweden
1952 Francois Mauriac France
1953 Sir Winston Churchill Britain
1954 Ernest Hemingway U.S.
1955 Halldor K. Laxness Icelandic
1956 Juan Ramon Jimenez Spain
1957 Albert Camus France
1958 Boris L.Pasternak USSR
1959 Salvatore Quasimodo Italy
1960 Saint-John Perse France
1961 Ivo Andric Yugoslavia
1962 John Steinbeck U.S.
1963 Giorgos Seferis
1964 Jean Paul Sartre France
1965 Mikhail Sholokhov USSR
1966 Samuel Joseph Agnon
Nelly Sachs Isreal
Sweden
1967 Muguel Angel Asturias Guate
1968 Yasunari Kawabata Japan
1969 Samuel Beckett Iran
1970 Aleksandr I. Solzhenisyn USSR
1971 Pablo Neruda Chilean
1972 Heinrich Boll West Germany
1973 Patrick White Austral
1974 Eyvind Johnson, Harry Edmund Martinson Sweden
1975 Eugenio Montale Italy
1976 Saul Bellow U.S.
1977 Vicente Aleixandre Spain
1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer U.S.
1979 Odysseus Elytis Gk
1980 Czerslaw Milosz Poland-U.S.
1981 Elias Canetti Bulgium-Britain
1982 Gabriel HGarcia Marquez Colombian-Mexico
1983 William Golding Britain
1984 Jaroslav Siefert Czech
1985 Claude Simon France
1986 Wole Soyinka Nigerian
1987 Joseph Brodsky USSR-U.S.
1988 Naguib Mahfouz England
1989 Camilo Jose Cela Spain
1990 Octavio Paz Mexico
1991 Nadine Gordimer South Africa
1992 Derek Walcott West India
1993 Toni Morrison U.S.
1994 Kenzaburo Oe Japan
1995 Seamus Heaney Iran
1996 Wislawa zymorska Poland
1997 Dario Fo Italy
1998 Jose Saramago Portugal
1999 Gunter Grass Germany
2000 Gao Xingjian China
2001 V.S. Naipaul
2002 Imre Kertész


Nobel Prize Winners - Economics

Year Name Country
1969 Ragnar Frisch
Jan Tinbergen Norwegian
Dutch
1970 Paul A.Samuelson U.S.
1971 Simon Kuznets U.S.
1972 Kenneth J. Arrow
John R. Hicks U.S.
Britain
1973 Wassily Leontief U.S.
1974 Gunnar Myrdal
Friedrich A.von Hayek Sweden
Australia
1975 Tjalling Koopmans
Leonid Kantorovich Dutch-U.S
USSR
1976 Milton Friedman U.S.
1977 Bertil Ohlin
James E. Meade Swedish
Britain
1978 Herbert A. Simon U.S.
1979 Theodore W. Schultz
Sir Arthur Lewis U.S.
Britain
1980 Lawrence R. Klein U.S.
1981 James Tobin U.S.
1982 George J. Stigler U.S.
1983 Gerard Debreu France - U.S.
1984 Richard Stone Britain
1985 Franco Modigliani Italy - U.S.
1986 James M.Buchanan U.S.
1987 Robert M. Solow U.S.
1988 Maurice Allais France
1989 Trygve Haavelmo Norway
1990 Harry M. Markowitz William F. Sharpe, Merton H. Miller U.S.
1991 Ronald H.Coase Britain - U.S
1992 Gary S.Becker U.S.
1993 Robert W. Fogel, Douglass C. North U.S.
1994 John C. Harsanyi, John F. Nash U.S.
1995 Robert W. Fogel, Douglass C.Norht U.S.
1996 James A. Mirrlees
William Vickrey Uk
Canada
1997 Robert C. Merton, Myron S.Scholes U.S.
1998 Amarty Sen India
1999 Robert Mundell Canada
2000 James J. Heckman
Daniel L. McFadden USA
USA
2001 George A. Akerlof
A. Michael Spence
Joseph E. Stiglitz USA
USA
USA
2002 Daniel Kahneman
Vernon L. Smith USA
USA

Terms & explanation 2

Military ,Aviation And Naval Terms

ARSENAL Place where arms and ammunition are manufactured and stored.
BATTALION An army unit consisting of 1,000 combatants led by a Lieutenant Colonel.
BATTERY A unit of a number of artillery guns, mobile or fixed.
BULL'S EYE The point of target that has t be aimed or hit while practicing shooting.
COCKPIT Pilot's seat in the fuselage of an aeroplane.
CAMOUFLAGE Hiding of objects by various means to deceive or bamboozle the enemy about their real location thereby protecting them from air and ground attacks.
COMMANDO A mobile body of guerilla fighters.
CONSCRIPTION Compulsory recruitment of personnel for service in the armed forces.
DIVISION Normally, a division has 20,000 troops commanded by a Major General equipped with two or more brigades of infantry with befitting artillery and engineering equipment.
DOGFIGHT An aerial duel between two or more aircraft's at a close range.
FLOTILLA A fleet of boats or small ships.
GUIDED MISSILES Powered by rockets or jet propulsion, they are unmanned, self propelled air or space vehicle fitted with explosive warheads. Guided missiles are either self directed with inlaid controls or under remote controls based on the firing range.
ICBM Inter Continental Ballistic Missile is a rocket propelled surface to surface guided missile carrying a nuclear warhead which can reach a destined city or installation in the world and destroy it entirely.
INTERMEDIATE RANGE BALLISTIC MISSILE (IRBM) It is of three types, viz, air to air, surface to air, and air to surface. Air to air guided missile, launched from an aircraft is employed to hit target in the battlefield. Surface to surface and air to air guided missiles are employed against enemy missiles or targets.
JUMBO JET A large passenger jet aircraft having the capacity to life nearly 447 passengers.
NUCLEAR UMBRELLA Giving air shield to a city or by nuclear weapons. It is also called parasol or Sombrero.
STAR WARS Deployment of weapons on satellites in space with a view to destroy inter-continental ballistic missiles in space coming from the enemy.
SQUADRON Air Force formation consisting of 20 aircraft's commanded by a Squadron Leader.


Military ,Aviation And Naval Terms

ARSENAL Place where arms and ammunition are manufactured and stored.
BATTALION An army unit consisting of 1,000 combatants led by a Lieutenant Colonel.
BATTERY A unit of a number of artillery guns, mobile or fixed.
BULL'S EYE The point of target that has t be aimed or hit while practicing shooting.
COCKPIT Pilot's seat in the fuselage of an aeroplane.
CAMOUFLAGE Hiding of objects by various means to deceive or bamboozle the enemy about their real location thereby protecting them from air and ground attacks.
COMMANDO A mobile body of guerilla fighters.
CONSCRIPTION Compulsory recruitment of personnel for service in the armed forces.
DIVISION Normally, a division has 20,000 troops commanded by a Major General equipped with two or more brigades of infantry with befitting artillery and engineering equipment.
DOGFIGHT An aerial duel between two or more aircraft's at a close range.
FLOTILLA A fleet of boats or small ships.
GUIDED MISSILES Powered by rockets or jet propulsion, they are unmanned, self propelled air or space vehicle fitted with explosive warheads. Guided missiles are either self directed with inlaid controls or under remote controls based on the firing range.
ICBM Inter Continental Ballistic Missile is a rocket propelled surface to surface guided missile carrying a nuclear warhead which can reach a destined city or installation in the world and destroy it entirely.
INTERMEDIATE RANGE BALLISTIC MISSILE (IRBM) It is of three types, viz, air to air, surface to air, and air to surface. Air to air guided missile, launched from an aircraft is employed to hit target in the battlefield. Surface to surface and air to air guided missiles are employed against enemy missiles or targets.
JUMBO JET A large passenger jet aircraft having the capacity to life nearly 447 passengers.
NUCLEAR UMBRELLA Giving air shield to a city or by nuclear weapons. It is also called parasol or Sombrero.
STAR WARS Deployment of weapons on satellites in space with a view to destroy inter-continental ballistic missiles in space coming from the enemy.
SQUADRON Air Force formation consisting of 20 aircraft's commanded by a Squadron Leader.


SCIENCE TERMINOLOGY
Science is knowledge, often as opposed to intuition, belief, etc. It is, in fact, systematized knowledge derived from observation, study and experimentation carried on in order to determine the nature or principles of what is being studied. There are many sciences, each concerned with a particular field of study. In each science measurement plays an important part. In each science, too, a study is made of the laws according to which objects react. Here are some sciences.

ACOUSTICSThe study of sound (or the science of sound).

ACROBATICS:The art of performing acrobatic feats (gymnastics).

AERODYNAMICS:
(i) The branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of air and other gases.
(ii) The study of the motion and control of solid bodies like aircraft, missiles, etc., in air

AERONAUTICS: The Science or art of flight.

AEROSTATICS:The branch of statics that deals with gases in equilibrium and with gases and bodies in them.

AESTHETICS:The philosophy of fine arts.

AETIOLOGY:The science of causation.

AGROBIOLOGY:The science of plant life and plant nutrition.

AGRONOMICS:The science of managing land or crops.

AGRONOMY:The science of soil management and the production of field crops.

AGROSTOLOGY:The study of grasses.

ALCHEMY:Chemistry in ancient times.

ANATOMY:The science dealing with the structure of animals, plants or human body.

ANTHROPOLOGY:The science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural development of mankind.

ARBORICULTURE:Cultivation of trees and vegetables.

ARCHAEOLOGY:The study of antiquities.

ASTROLOGY:The ancient art of predicting the course of human destinies with the help of indications deduced from the position and movement of the heavenly bodies.

ASTRONAUTICS:The science of space travel.

ASTRONOMY: - The study of the heavenly bodies.

ASTROPHYSICS:The branch of astronomy concerned with the physical nature of heavenly bodies.

BACTERIOLOGY: The study of bacteria.

BIOCHEMISTRY: The study of chemical processes of living things.

BIOLOGY: The study of living things.

BIOMETRY:The application of mathematics to the study of living things.

BIONICS:The study of functions, characteristics and phenomena observed in the living world and the application of this knowledge to the world of machines.

BIONOMICS:The study of the relation of an organism to its environments.

BIONOMY:The science of the laws of life.

BIOPHYSICS:The physics of vital processes (living things).

BOTANY:The study of plants.

CALISTHENICS:The systematic exercises for attaining strength and gracefulness.

CARTOGRAPHY:Science of Map Making.

CERAMICS:The art and technology of making objects from clay, etc. (Pottery).

CHEMISTRY:The study of elementary and their laws of combination and behaviour.

CHEMOTHERAPY:The treatment of disease by using chemical substances.

CHRONOBIOLOGY:The study of the duration of life.

CHRONOLOGY:The science of arranging time in periods and ascertaining the dates and historical order of past events.

CONCHOLOGY:The branch of zoology dealing with the shells of mollusks.

COSMOGONY:The science of the nature of heavenly bodies.

COSMOGRAPHY: The science that describes and maps the main feature of the universe.

COSMOLOGY:The science of the nature, origin and history of the universe.

CRIMINOLOGY:The study of crime and criminals.

CRYTOGRAPHY:The study of ciphers (secret writings).

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY:The study of the structure, forms and properties of crystals.

CRYGENICS:The science dealing with the production, control and application of very low temperatures.

CYTOCHEMISTRY:The branch of cytology dealing with the chemistry of cells.

CYTOGENETICS:The branch of biology dealing with the study of heredity from the point of view of cytology and genetics.

CYTOLOGY:The study of cells, especially their formation, structure and functions.

DACTYLOGRAPHY:The study of fingerprints for the purpose of identification.

DACTYLIOLOGY:The technique of communication by signs made with the fingers. It is generally used by the deaf.

ECOLOGY:The study of the relation of animals and plants to their surroundings, animate and inanimate.

ECONOMETRICS: The application of mathematics in testing economic theories.

ECONOMICS:The science dealing with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.

EMBRYOLOGY:The study of development of embryos.

ENTOMOLOGY:The study of insects.

EPIDEMIOLOGY:The branch of medicine dealing with epidemic diseases.

EPIGRAPHY:The study of inscriptions.

ETHICS:Psychological study of moral principles.

ETHNOGRAPHY:A branch of anthropology dealing with the scientific description of individual cultures.

ETHNOLOGY:A branch of anthropology that deals with the origin, distribution and distinguishing characteristics of the races of mankind.

ETHOLOGY:The study of animal behaviour.

ETYMOLOGY:The study of origin and history of words.

EUGENICS:The study of the production of better offspring by the careful selection of parents.

GENEALOGY:The study of family ancestries and histories.

GENECOLOGY:The study of genetical composition of plant population in relation to their habitats.

GENESIOLOGY:The science of generation.

GENETICS:The branch of biology dealing with the phenomena of heredity and the laws governing it.

GEOBIOLOGY:The biology of terrestrial life.

GEOBOTANY:The branch of botany dealing with all aspects of relations between plants and the earth's surface.

GEOCHEMISTRY:The study of the chemical composition of the earth's crust and the changes which take place within it.

GEOGRAPHY:The development of science of the earth's surface, physical features, climate, population, etc.

GEOLOGY:The science that deals with the physical history of the earth.

GEOMEDICINE:The branch of medicine dealing with the influence of climate and environmental conditions on health.

GEOMORPHOLOGY:The study of the characteristics, origin and development of land forms.

GEOPHYSICS:The physics of the earth.

GERONTOLOGY:The study of old age, its phenomena, diseases, etc.


HELIOTHEARPY: The sun cure.

HISTOLOGY:The study of tissues.

HORTICULTURE:The cultivation of flowers, fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants.

HYDRODYNAMICS:The mathematical study of the forces, energy and pressure of liquid in motion.

HYDROGRAPHY:The science of water measurements of the earth with special reference of their use for navigation.

HYDROLOGY:The study of water with reference to its occurrence and properties in the hydrosphere and atmosphere.

HYDROMETALLURGY:The process of extracting metals at ordinary temperature by bleaching ore with liquids.

HYDROPATHY:The treatment of disease by the internal and external use of water.

HYDROPONICS:The cultivation of plants by placing the roots in liquid nutrient solutions rather than in soil.

HYDROSTATICS: The mathematical study of forces and pressure in liquids.

HYGIENE:The science of health and its preservation.

LCONOGRAPHY:Teaching with the aid of pictures and models.

LCONOLOGY:The study of symbolic representations.

JURISPRUDENCE:The science of law.

LEXICOGRAPHY:The writing or compiling of dictionaries.

MAMMOGRAPHY:Radiography of the mammary glands.

METALLOGRAPHY:The study of the crystalline structures of metals and alloys.

METALLURGY:The process of extracting metals from their ores.

METEOROLOGY:The science of the atmosphere and its phenomena.

METROLOGY:The scientific study of weights and measures.

MICROBIOLOGY:The study of minute living organisms, including bacteria, molds and pathogenic protozoa.

MOLECCULAR BIOLOGY:The study of the structure of the molecules which are of importance in biology.

MORPHOLOGY:The science of organic forms and structures.

MYCOLOGY:The study of fungi and fungus diseases.

NEUROLOGY:The study of the nervous system, its functions and its disorders.

NEUROPATHOLOGY:The study of diseases of the nervous system.

NUMEROLOGY:The study of numbers. The study of the date and year of one's birth and to determine the influence on one's future life.

NUMISMATICS:The study of coins and medals.

ODONTOGRAPHY:A description of the teeth.

ODONTOLOGY:The scientific study of the teeth.

OPTICS:The study of nature and properties of light.

ORNITHOLOGY:The study of birds.

ORTHOEPY:The study of correct pronunciation.

ORTHOPEDICS:The science of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and abnormalities of musculoskeletal systems.

OSTEOLOGY:The study of the bones.

OSTEOPATHOLOGY:Any disease of bones.

OSTEOPATHY:A therapeutic system based upon detecting and correcting faulty structure.

PALEOBOTANY:The study of fossil plants.

PALEONTOLOGY:The study of fossils.

PALYNOLOGY:The pollen analysis.

PATHOLOGY:The study of diseases.

PEDAGOGY:The art or method of teaching.

PHARYNGOLOGY:The science of the pharynx and its diseases.

PHENOLOGY:The study of periodicity phenomena of plants.

PHILATELY:The collection and study of postage stamps, revenue stamps, etc.

PHILOLOGY:The study of written records, their authenticity, etc.

PHONETICS:The study of speech sounds and the production, transmission, reception, etc.

PHOTOBIOLOGY:The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.

PHENOLOGY:The study of the faculties and qualities of minds from the shape of the skull.

PHTHISIOLOGY:The scientific study of tuberculosis.

PHYCOLOGY:The study of algae.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE:The study of natural laws and processes other than those peculiar to living matters, as in physics, chemistry and astronomy.

PHYSICS:The study of the properties of matter.

PHYSIOGRAPHY:The science of physical geography.

PHYSIOLOGY:The study of the functioning of the various organs of living beings.

PHYTOGENY:Origin and growth of plants.

POMOLOGY:The science that deals with fruits and fruit growing.

PSYCHOLOGY:The study of human and animal behaviour.

RADIO ASTRONOMY:The study of heavenly bodies by the reception and analysis of the radio frequency electromagnetic radiations which they emit or reflect.

RADIOBIOLOGY:The branch of biology which deals with the effects of radiations on living organisms.

RADIOLOGY:The study of X-rays and radioactivity.

RHEOLOGY:The study of the deformation and flow of matter.

SEISMOLOGY:The study of earthquakes and the phenomena associated with it.

SELENOLOGY:The scientific study of moon, its nature, origin, movements, etc.

SERICULTURE:The raising of silk worms for the production of raw silk.

SOCIOLOGY:The study of human society.

SPECTROSCOPE:The study of matter and energy by the use of spectroscope.

TELEOLOGY:These study of the evidences of design or purpose in nature.

TELEPATHY:Communication between minds by some means other than sensory perception.

THERAPEUTICS:The science and art of healing.

TOPOGRAPHY:A special description of a part or region

TAXICOLOGY:The study of poisons.

VIROLOGY:The study of viruses.

ZOOLOGY:The study of animal life.


Importans of Laws and Principles


ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE:

When a body is immersed either wholly or partially in a fluid at rest, the apparent loss of weight suffered by it is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by it.
AVOGADRO's LAW:

Equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules.
BLACK BODY RADIATION:

A black body absorbs heat or radiates heat more quickly than any other body.
BOILING POINT:

It increases with the increase of pressure. The presence of impurities also raises the boiling point of a liquid.
CENTRE OF GRAVITY:

A body will remain at rest only if the vertical line through the centres of gravity passes through the base of support of the body.
COULOMB'S LAW:

The force between the two electric charges reduces to a quarter of its former value when the distance between them is doubled.
FARADAY'S LAWS OF ELECTROLYSIS:

The amount of chemical change during electrolysis is proportional to the charge passed.
The masses of substances liberated or deposited by the same quantity of electric charge are proportional to their chemical equivalents.
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER:

In chemical changes, matter is neither created nor destroyed. The sum total of the masses of all the products of a chemical change is exactly equal to the sum total of the substances from which these products have been formed.

LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS:

The amount of heat given to a system is equal to the sum of the increase in the internal energy of the system and the external work done.
It is impossible to construct a continuous self-acting machine that can pump heat energy from a body at lower temperature to a body at higher temperature.
LENZ'S LAW:

When an electric current is induced by a change in magnetic field, the induced current is always in such a direction that its magnetic field opposes the change of field which causes the induction.
MASS - ENERGY EQUATION:

E = mc2, where E = quantity of energy released from the annihilation of matter of mass 'm', c = velocity of light. It implies that mass and energy are interchangeable.
NEWTON'S LAW OF COOLING:

The rate at which a body cools or loses its heat to its surroundings is proportional to the excess of mean temperature of the body over that of the surroundings, provided this temperature excess is not too large.
NEWTON'S UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION:

Every body in the universe attracts every other body with a force, directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION:

Everybody continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by a force [called Law of Inertia].
The rate of change of momentum of a moving body is proportional to the applied force and takes place in the direction of the force.
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
OHM'S LAW:

The amount of current flowing in an electric circuit is governed by the voltage of the battery on dynamo which powers it. In other words, the current through a conductor is directly proportional the potential difference across the conductor and inversely proportional to its resistance.
RECTILINEAR PROPAGATION OF LIGHT:

Light travels in a straight line. Total internal reflection takes place when a ray of light tries to pass from a denser medium to a rarer medium at an angle of incidence more than the critical angle.

Terms & Explanation

Geographical Terms

ANTIPODES A region or place on the opposite side of a point on the earth.
ANTICYCLONES Winds which blow outward from the center.
APHELION Position of the earth in its orbit when is at the maximum distance from the sun.
ARCHIPELAGO A cluster of islands, e.g., Pearl Islands in the Gulf of Panama.
ATOLL Coral reef resembling a horse shoe, enclosing a lagoon.
AXIS An imaginary line joining north and south poles.
AVALANCHE A vast mass of snow mixed with earth or stones.
BIOSPHERE Animate or inanimate organic kingdom on earth.
CANYON A deep valley cut by a river through a mountain region, e,g., the Grand Canyon of the Colarado river in the USA.
CONTINENTAL SHELF Land adjoining a continent submerged in the sea.
CYCLONES A low pressure system area in which the wind blows spirally inward.
CROP ROTATION Growing different crops needing different minerals for their growth in the same piece of land in order to get more yield.
DATE LINE An imaginary line pointing north-south approximating to the Meridian 180 (east or west) where the date changes by one day the moment it is crossed.
DELTA Alluvial deposit shaped like Greek letter, formed at the mouth of the river, where it falls into the sea, e.g., the Sunderban delta.
DEW Condensed atmospheric water vapours due to the cooling of the air.
DRY FARMING Growing of crops in low rainfall areas by moisture conservation, crop rotation but without irrigation.
EQUATOR An imaginary line dividing the earth into two equal parts.
EQUINOXES The day on which nights and days are of equal duration, e.g., March 22 and September 23.
EROSION Wearing away of the earth's land surface by rain, wind, water, etc. rendering the land infertile.
ECLIPSE When one earthly body obscures another one partially or completely.
FOG When the atmospheric moisture touches cold earth and condenses on dust particles.
FROST When the atmospheric moisture deposits in the shape of icy flakes on the exposed objects or near the ground due to below freezing point temperature.
HIGH SEAS The parts of the sea which do not come under the territorial jurisdiction of the nations.
ICEBERG Huge mass of ice separated from glacier in the polar regions. These masses of ice float in the oceans with 9 parts submerged in the ocean and one part visible.
ISOBARS Lines on the map connecting the places of the same pressure.
ISOTHERMS Lines on the map joining the places of the same temperature.
ISTHMUS Narrow neck of land joining two land areas.
KUNDAN Anew variety of wheat which gives high yields in both rained and irrigated tracts and responds well to low dose of water and fertiliser.
LAGOON A shallow stream of water at the mouth of a river enclosed bu dunes of river silt.
LIGHT YEAR The distance traveled by light in one year. It is equal to 9.4*10612 km.
LOCAL TIME Time calculated from the sun at noon at any place of earth.
MERIDIAN Imaginary line joining north and south poles and cutting the equator at right angles.
MIST It is just like fog but contain more moisture.
OASIS A part of the desert where water and vegetation are found.
ORBIT The path of the heavenly bodies.
PYGMALLION POINT The southernmost point of India, 700 km away from mainland India.
PRAIRIES Smooth, treeless, green plain of Central and North America.
REEF Jutting of rock or shingle or sand at just above or below sea level.
SAVANNA Land covered with natural grass.
SIDEREAL DAY Time taken by the earth to rotate once round its axis.
SNOW LINE Altitudinal line along which the area remains snow clad.
SPRING TIDES Higher tides in the ocean caused by the sun and the moon together. When the sun, the earth and the moon are positioned in a straight line.
NEAP TIDES Tides caused by the differences of the forces exerted by the moon and the sun when both are at right angles to each other.
TORNADO A brisk and violent storm generally having rotator motion.
TUNDRAS Peripheral area of Arctic ocean.
TYCOON Violent hurricane in China Sea.
WEATHER SATELLITE Artificial satellite designed to forecast weather.
WESTERLIES Constant winds blowing from south-west in the northern hemisphere and north-west in south hemisphere.


POLITICAL AND SOCIAL TERMS

APARTHEID Policy of racial segregation practiced by the South African Government.
ADJOURNMENT A motion moved by a member of a legislature to adjourn consideration of the issues in hand for discussing a matter of urgent public importance.
AMNESTY Grant of pardon or exemption from prosecution to political importance.
ARMISTICE Temporary cessation of hostilities pending formal negotiations for peace.
APPEASEMENT The policy of gratifying one's enemy with concession and special grants by sacrificing even principles.
AUTONOMY Power to control internal affairs.
BILATERAL AGREEMENT An agreement between two countries.
BLOCKADES Imposing closure of ports and waterways to prevent ships from reaching or leaving it.
BOLSHEVISM The doctrine of Proletarian Dictatorship as propounded by Lenin.
BOURGEOISE Capitalist class in Marxian terminology.
BUFFER STATE A small neutral state between two big states.
BY-ELECTION A mid term election to fill a seat rendered vacant.
CASTING VOTE A vote casting of which decides the tie.
CAUCUS A powerful group of party.
CHARGED AFFAIRS The senior most diplomat after the head of the mission, officiating in his absence.
COALITION Combination of two or more parties with the purpose of forming a composite government.
CONFEDERATION Alliance of nations for some specific purpose our retaining the respective individual nation sovereignty.
COLD WAR The state of ideological or wordy warfare between two countries or blocks.
ENVOY A diplomatic emissary accredited to the country and holding position below that of an ambassador.
FIFTH COLUMN An anti-national clique of spies and saboteurs.
FLOOR CROSSING The act of changing political loyalty by a person or a group.
FRANCHISE Right to cast vote in the public elections.
GALLUP POLL An opinion poll-may be with the help of interview.
GENOCIDE Intention to destroy wholly or in part a religious, ethnic or political group.
GHERAO Encircling a person and rending him incapable of doing anything till he/she concedes demands.
GLOSNOST Means openness. Term used for reforms introduced in Russian society by M.Gorbachov.
HABEAS CORPUS A type of a writ issued by a High Court or Supreme court against illegal detention of a person.
HOT LINE A direct telephone link between the White House and Kremlin established in 1963.
IMPEACHMENT Trial by the Parliament.
LOBBYING Exercising influence or pressure on members of the legislative bodies in the lobby for supporting or opposing an issue in the House.
LOK PAL An official appointed by the President to investigate public complaints against ministers and high officials.
MANIFESTO A declaration of political party about its policies and programmes given at the time of elections.
NATIONALISATION The act of taking business undertakings an institutions by the state and controlling them.
NAXALITE A movement violent in character believing in Maoism: the term was first used for the peasants of Naxalbari (West Bengal) who rose against the landlords demanding land for the landless.
NEW DEAL The name given to the policy of Franklin D.Roosevelt to revive and boost American economy .
ORDINANCE An Act or decree promulgated by the Head of State in an emergency or when the legislative body is not in session.
PERESTROIKA Used for Gorbachov's move to restructure political and economical structure of the Russian society.
PLEBISCITE Voting on regional or national issue.
PERSONALITY CULT Too much adulation for a ruler or a political figure.
PRIVY PURSE Yearly allowances granted to the princes of Indian states after the merger of their states with the Indian Union. (New these purses are abolished).
PRIVILEGE MOTION A motion moved by a legislator drawing attention of the House towards a matter involving breach of privilege of the House or any of its members.
REFERENDUM People's verdict on some constitutional amendment and some other legislative issue of controversial nature.
SECULARISM Affirmation in all the faiths, showing no official patronage to any religions or religions.
SANCTIONS Penalty or reward imposed for disobedience or obedience attached to the law.
SOCIALISM Control of production and means of distribution in the hands of the State.
STATUTE Law made by the Parliament, enshrined in the statue book, which are binding on al subjects, of a particular country.
SUFFRAGE Right of voting in political elections.
SELF-DETERMINATION Right of a nation deciding its own form of government, its political destiny or independence.
TERRITORIAL WATERS Areas of the sea up to 12 km measured from the low water mark of the coast and within the executive control of an adjacent State.
UNICAMERAL A legislature having only one House.
VETO Right to reject any resolution or enactment passed by the legislature.


Economic , Commercial and Trade Terms

ARBITRATION Referring dispute to disinterested party called arbitrator for decision, which will be binding.
ANNUITY Payment of a fixed amount periodically for a limited time. It is an investment on which the owner receives not only interest on his money but also return of his capital.
BALANCE OF TRADE The difference between the value of imports and exports. It is favourable when the value of exported goods exceeds the value of imported goods. If it is reverse balance is unfavourable.
BALANCE SHEET Statements of accounts, generally os a business house prepared at the end of a year, showing debits and credits under broad heads, in order to find out the profit and loss positions in the outgoing year.
BARTER Exchange of commodity with other commodities without the interface of any form of currency.
BOND Document by which a government, a company or a person agrees to pay a sum of money in a certain time.
BUDGET Annual estimate of expenditure and revenue of a country or a subordinate authority like a corporation.
BILL OF EXCHANGE Written order by a drawer to pay sum on given date ot named payee.
BUYER'S MARKET An economic phenomenon where there are more goods in market than demanded and so the buyers can dictate the prices of goods.
CLEARING HOUSE Place where officials of the banks meet daily to exchange cheques drawn on the respective banks and settle the account by the payment of balances only.
COOPERATIVE FARMING Joint farming wherein farmers pool their land, capital and resources and divide the produce at the end of the harvest in proportion to their land put in the pool. The farmers retain their proprietary rights.
CEILING ON LAND AND HOLDING Imposition of a maximum limit of the land which an individual should have. Its purpose is rational distribution of land.
DEATH DUTY (ESTATE DUTY) A sort of tax imposed on the property inherited at death of its previous owner.
DEVALUATION Government's step to reduce the value of its own currency relatively to a foreign currency. It aims to increase exports and reduce imports.
DEFLATION A monetary state characterised by decrease in the supply of money and bank deposits and falling profits, wages, incomes and employment accompanied by unemployment and falling prices.
DEMONETISATION The governmental measure of depriving metallic coins or paper currency od specified denominations of its status money. It is meant to unearth the hidden money which is unaccounted for purpose of income tax assessment.
EXCISE DUTY Duty levied on goods manufactured within the country.
FOREIGN EXCHANGE Transfer of money of one country to another.
INFLATION Increase in the quality of money in circulation without any corresponding increase in goods; so, it leads to rising prices spiral.
LAISSEZ FAIRE An individualistic theory advocating private initiative in trade and non-interference by State in commercial or business ventures.
LOCKOUT Closure of a factory by owners to force the workers to accept the imposed terms.
MALTHUSIAN THEORY OF POPULATION It states that the food supply increase in arithmetical progression while population increase by geometrical progression resulting in over-population.
OCTROI Tax imposed on articles coming inside a city.
PUBLIC SECTOR Applies to State enterprises or undertaking.
RECESSION An economic phenomenon characterised by excessive production, less demand, tight money market.
SOFT CURRENCY Currency of a country with which we have favourable balance of trade.
STERLING AREA Group of countries of Commonwealth (except Canada) keeping their reserves in sterling and not gold or dollars.
TARIFFS Measures undertaking by one country to protect industry against trade competition from outside.


Legal Terms

AFFIDAVIT A statement on oath for use as evidence in legal proceedings.
CONTEMPT OF COURT Any disobedience of the court verdict.
COPYRIGHT Exclusive right of an author in his works,
COVENANT An agreement under seal between two or more persons.
DECREE Judgement or decision having the force of law.
DETENU Persons who dies without making any will.
INTESTATE A person who dies without making any will.
LIBEL A published statement damaging to a person's reputation or business.
MANDAMUS A writ issued by a higher court to a lower court directing it to perform a specified act pertaining to its office.
PLAINTIFF A person who, as complainant, brings a suit in a court of law.
SUMMONS A directive from a court of law ordering a person to appear before it at a specified date, time and place.
WRIT A written order by a Supreme Court or High Court directing the State or a lowest court to act or abstain from acting in a particular case.

Friday 18 September 2009

General Knowledge Question And Answers

The first Indian to win the World Champion title in Chess

Ans : Viswanathan Anand

Who is known as ‘The Flying Sikh’

Ans : Milka Singh

Who is the first Indian woman to win a medal in the World Athletic meet

Ans : Anju Boby Gerorge

National Sports day is observed on August 29th. It is the birth day of

Ans : Dhyanchand

In cricket, the length of the pitch between the wickets is

Ans : 22 yards (20.12 m)

The place in which the first Asian games were held at

Ans : New Delhi

The first ever National Youth Games (under-19) were held in January 2004 at

Ans : Bangalore

The number of rings in Olympics flag is

Ans : 5

Which country will host the Commonwealth Games in 2010

Ans : India

Who is the first Indian to join the Formula 1 league

Ans : Narain Karthikeyan

First Indian woman civil engineer

Ans : Lalitha from Madras in 1937

Who is known as ‘Light of Asia’

Ans : Buddha

Who is known as ‘Light of World’

Ans : Christ

Who is known as king of Rock & Roll

Ans : Elvis Presley

Who is known as Father of Kissan Movement

Ans : Pro. N.G. Renga

Who was the first Indian to go to jail in performance of his duty as a Journalist

Ans : Surendranath Banerjee

Christiaan Barnard, the surgeon who carried out the first successful transplantation was from the country

Ans : South Africa

The first person to conduct heart transplantation in India was

Ans : Dr. Venugopal

The first Indian pilot

Ans : J.R.D Tata

The first woman graduate of the Calcutta University addressed the AICC session in 1890. Who was she

Ans : Kadambini Ganguly

Who said “there is neither Hindu nor Muslim, only a manâ€Â

Ans : Swami Vivekananda

Who said the words “Show me a hero, I’ll write you a tragedyâ€Â

Ans : Scott Fitzgerald

The state sprawls over the Western Himalayas and the Karakoram Mountains. It is the most northerly and mountainous state of India’. This refers to the state of

Ans : Jammu & Kashmir

That is one small step for man, but one giant leap for mankind†Who said this

Ans : Neil Armstrong

Who said “consumer is the kingâ€Â

Ans : Swami Vivekananda

In which book of Shakespeare we can see the famous words ‘To be or not to be’

Ans : Hamlet

The Vedic saying “War begins in the minds of men†appears in

Ans : Atharva Veda

Who said “I therefore want freedom immediately, this very night, before dawn if it can be hadâ€Â

Ans : Mahatma Gandhi

The light has gone out of our lives and there is darkness every where†. Who said these

Ans : Nehru on Gandhiji’s death

Who defined “democracy as a government of the people, by the people and for the peopleâ€Â

Ans :Abraham Lincoln

Who said “there is neither Hindu nor Muslim, only a manâ€Â

Ans : Swami Vivekananda

Who said the words “Show me a hero, I’ll write you a tragedyâ€Â

Ans : Scott Fitzgerald

The state sprawls over the Western Himalayas and the Karakoram Mountains. It is the most northerly and mountainous state of India’. This refers to the state of

Ans : Jammu & Kashmir

That is one small step for man, but one giant leap for mankind†Who said this

Ans : Neil Armstrong

Who said “consumer is the kingâ€Â

Ans : Swami Vivekananda

In which book of Shakespeare we can see the famous words ‘To be or not to be’

Ans : Hamlet

The Vedic saying “War begins in the minds of men†appears in

Ans : Atharva Veda

Who said “I therefore want freedom immediately, this very night, before dawn if it can be hadâ€Â

Ans : Mahatma Gandhi

The light has gone out of our lives and there is darkness every where†. Who said these

Ans : Nehru on Gandhiji’s death

Who defined “democracy as a government of the people, by the people and for the peopleâ€Â

Ans : Abraham Lincoln

Agra is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Yamuna

Which is the Highest Mountain Range

Ans : Himalayas

Which is the Highest Lake

Ans : Titicaca

Longest Railway Platform

Ans : Kharagpur (West Bengal)

Largest Church

Ans : Basilica of St. Peters in Vatican City

Largest Park

Ans : The Wood Buffalo National Park in Alberta, Canada

The largest Parliament

Ans : China

Largest Zoo

Ans : Kruger National Park, South Africa

The biggest Flower

Ans : Rafflesia

Largest Bird

Ans : Ostrich

Largest Land animal

Ans : Elephant

Largest man-like ape

Ans : Gorilla

Highest Mountain

Ans : Everest

Highest Airport

Ans : Leh

Highest waterfalls

Ans : Angel Falls, Venezuela

Oldest National Flag

Ans : Denmark

Fastest animal

Ans : Cheetah

Tallest animal

Ans : Giraffe

Operating system of a computer manages

Ans : all the operations of a computer

Software that can manipulate or destroy data or programs in a computer is known as

Ans : Virus

Binary Code’ used in computers makes use of which numbers

Ans : 0 & 1

One kilobyte is equal to

Ans : 1024 bytes

Who is the architect of Supercomputer

Ans : Seymour Cray

Which computer company introduced mouse for the first time

Ans : Apple Corporation

Who developed the World Wide Web first

Ans : Timothy Berners Lee

The first large scale, general purpose digital computer

Ans : ENIAC

ENIAC

Ans : Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer

The shortcut key to print documents is

Ans : Ctrl + P

The function of key F4 in keyboard is

Ans : to repeat the last action

Name the first general purpose electronic computer

Ans : UNIVAC

Jainism is associated with

Ans : Vardhamana Mahavira

Daoism is associated with

Ans : Laozi

Babism is associated with

Ans : Mirza Ali Muhammad (The Bab)

Confucianism is associated with

Ans : Confucius

Sikhism is associated with

Ans : Guru Nanak

Zoroastrianism is associated with

Ans : Zoroaster

Bhoodan movement is associated with

Ans : Vinoba Bhave

Sarvodaya is associated with

Ans : Jaya Prakash Narayan

Ramakrishna Mission is associated with

Ans : Swami Vivekananda

Arya Samaj is associated with

Ans : Dayanand Swaraswati

Brahma Samaj is associated with

Ans : Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Dev Samaj is associated with

Ans : Siva Narayan Agnihothri

Prarthana Samaj is associated with

Ans : Keasab Chandra Sen

Sudhi Movement is associated with

Ans : Swami Shradhanand

Chinmaya Mission is associated with

Ans : Swami Chinmayananda

Servants of India Society is associated with

Ans : Gopalakrishna Gokhale

Indian Association is associated with

Ans : Surendranath Banerji

Peoples Education Society is associated with

Ans : Dr. B.R. Ambedkar

Vana Mahotsava is associated with

Ans : K.M. Munshi

Which is called, City of Golden Temple?

Ans : Amritsar

Which is called, Blue Mountains?

Ans : Nilgiri

Which is called, Hill Queen?

Ans : Simla

Which is called, Land of Five Rivers?

Ans : Punjab

Which is called, Pearl of the Orient?

Ans : Goa

Which is called, God's Own Country?

Ans : Kerala

Which is called, Pink City?

Ans : Jaipur

Which is called, Queen of Arabian Sea?

Ans : Cochin

Which is called, Switzerland of India?

Ans : Kashmir

Which is called, Sorrow of Bengal?

Ans : River Damodar

Which is called, Sorrow of China?

Ans : River Huang He (Yellow River)

Which is called, Sugar Bowl of World?

Ans : Cuba

Which is called, Rooftop of the World?

Ans : Bolivia

Which is called, Land of Midnight Sun?

Ans : Norway

Which is the Largest Continent

Ans : Asia

Which is the Largest Island

Ans : Greenland

Which is the Largest Ocean

Ans : Pacific

Which is the Largest Peninsula

Ans : Arabia

Which is the Largest Freshwater Lake

Ans : Lake Superior

Which is the Largest Archipelago

Ans : Indonesia

Which is the Largest Saltwater Lake

Ans : Caspian Sea

Which is the Largest Desert

Ans : Sahara (Africa)

Which is the Largest Delta

Ans : Sunderbans (Bengal)

Which is the Largest River

Ans : Nile

Which is the Smallest Continent

Ans : Australia

Which is the Highest Plateau

Ans : Pamir (Tibet)

Which is the Highest Mountain Peak

Ans : Everest (Nepal)

Theosophical Society is associated with

Ans : Annie Besant

Which is the first state in India has been formed on purely linguistic basis?

Ans : Andra Pradesh

The famous Thirumala Thirupathi Venkateswara Temple is in which district?

Ans : Chittoor

Which is known as twin cities?

Ans : Hyderabad and Secunderabad

Which state is known as the 'Orchid Paradise of India?

Ans : Arunachal Pradesh

Which place in Assam is said to be the meeting place of Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam?

Ans : Hajo

Lord Mahavira breathed his last at

Ans : Pavapuri

Goa become the 25th state of the Indian union on

Ans : 30th May 1987

The ancestral home of Mahendra Chaudhari, the Indian origin former prime minister of Fiji who was overthrown in a military coup is from

Ans : Haryana

Jammu & Kashmir was acceded to India on

Ans : 26th October 1947

Sea of Tranquility' and 'Ocean of Storms' are in

Ans : Moon

The alliance of non-communist parties against congress in the 1972 elections were known as

Ans : Grand Alliance

Who advocated for the ‘Total Revolution’ during 1974–75

Ans : Jayaprakash Narayan

Which Government introduced the food for work program first

Ans : Janatha Government (1977)

Which program introduced in schools aimed at providing basic amenity to the schools

Ans : Operation Blackboard

The first ‘baby friendly’ state in India is

Ans : Kerala

Who gave the slogan ‘Garibi Hato’

Ans : Indira Gandhi

Name the state with the largest number of registered newspapers

Ans : Uttar Pradesh

National Literacy Mission launched in 1988 aims at attaining a sustainable 75% literacy rate level by

Ans : 2007

The word ‘Satyameva Jayate’ inscribed below the abacus of the state emblem of India was taken from

Ans : Mundaka Upanishad Muharram, Safar, Rabi ul aval, Rabi u

Months in Islamic calendar

Ans : akhir, Rajab, Shaban, Ramadan, Shawwal, Dhual-Qadah, Dhual-Hijjah

In a vacuum flask, silvering reduces the loss of heat by

Ans : radiation

The period of oscillation of a pendulum depends on

Ans : length of the spring

The boiling point of a liquid ......... if pressure is decreased

Ans : decreases

No sound is heard on the moon because there is ..... on the moon

Ans : no atmosphere

Why do water pipes, in hilly areas, often burst on a cold, frosty night?

Ans : When water in the pipe freezes, it expands. So pipes break

Why do we sweat on a hot day?

Ans : In order to maintain a constant temperature, sweating is necessary

Why do the clothes keep us warm during winter?

Ans : Clothes prevent the heat of the body to escape.

Why do we hear better on water than land?

Ans : Sound travels faster in water than air

Why are the mountains cooler than plains?

Ans : Air on the mountains is less dense so it absorbs less heat.

Why is it easier to swim in sea water than in river?

Ans : Density of sea water is higher

The only paramilitary force which has an exclusive 'Mahila Battalion' is

Ans : CRPF batch – 88

The largest paramilitary force in India

Ans : Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)

Who is legally competent to declare war or conclude peace treaty

Ans : The President

Thumba rocket launching station is in which state

Ans : Kerala

Father of civil Aviation in India

Ans : J.R.D. Tata

India’s first electric car

Ans : Rava

What are Coast Guards

Ans : an emergency service that rescues people in difficulties at sea and acts against smuggling

The paramilitary force of India setup to provide security to Industrial undertakings owned by the Government is →

Ans : Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)

From where was GSAT-1 launched

Ans : Sriharikota

The first human-made objects to reach altitudes above 80 km is

Ans : V-2s, a rocket

The slogan associated with French Revolution

Ans : Liberty, Equality and Fraternity

In 1815 Napoleon was defeated in the battle of

Ans : Waterloo

Whose period was known as the Golden Age of Rome?

Ans : Augustus Caesar

The king ruled in the period of French revolution

Ans : Louis 16th

The political party of Hitler

Ans : National Socialist Party (Nazi)

Brown shirts were associated with

Ans : Hitler

The political party of Mussolini

Ans : Fascist Party

Black shirts were associated with

Ans : Mussolini

Who organized 'Red Army'

Ans : Trotsky

Pentagon is

Ans : the defence department of USA

The movement of a plant part toward or away from a source of heat is called

Ans : Thermotropism

The movement or growth of an organism or part of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus

Ans : Chemotropism

Plant that will only grow in water or in a very moist environment

Ans : Hydrophytes

Plant that needs moderate amounts of moisture for growth is known as

Ans : Mesophytes

Plant that can survive and grow in direct sunlight or that grows best in direct sunlight is called

Ans : Heliophytes

Plant that is adapted to living through seasonal changes in heat, cold, dryness, or moisture, for example, by shedding leaves during a dry season is called

Ans : Tropophyte

Green plant pigment used in photosynthesis is called

Ans : Chlorophyll

What is responsible for yellow, orange, or red color in flowers and fruits

Ans : Chromoplasts

The pigment found in plants that gives them their green color

Ans : Chlorophyll

Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary is located in which state

Ans : Gujarat

Months in Hebrew calendar

Ans : Shevat, Adar, Nisan, Iyar, Sivan, Tammuz, Av, Elul, Tishri, Heshvan, Kislev, Tevet

Elementary education covers children in the age group

Ans : 6 to 14 years

The National song ‘Vande Mataram’ was composed by

Ans : Bankim Chadra Chatterjee

The National emblem was adopted by the Government of India in the year

Ans : 26th January, 1950

The design of the National Flag was adopted in the year

Ans : 22nd July 1947

The playing time of the full version of the National Anthem is approximately equal to

Ans : 52 sec

The first regular census in India was taken in the year

Ans : 1881

First computer literate Panchayat in India is

Ans : Vellanad (Kerala State)

The longest highway in India runs from

Ans : Varanasi to Kanyakumari, NH – 7, 2369 km

Which Indian town has been selected as the first 'Eco Town' of India

Ans : Panipat

Which element helps in the flowering of plants

Ans : Phosphorous

Bone is used as a fertilizer because it contains
Ans : Phosphorous

Chemistry in ancient times was called

Ans : Alchemy

Which is the lightest gas next to Hydrogen

Ans : Helium

The first metal used by man was

Ans : Copper

AIDS disease was first identified in which country

Ans : America in 1981

The first woman I.P.S Officer of India

Ans : Kiran Bedi

Mandi House' is

Ans : The office of the Director General of Doordarshan

Speed' the improved quality of petrol was introduced by

Ans : B.P. (Bharat Petroleum)

Gobi desert is situated in

Ans : Mangolia/Northeastern China

Kalahari desert is situated in

Ans : Botswana

Java island is in which ocean

Ans : Indian Ocean

Four divided stages of prehistoric periods are

Ans : Paleolithic period, Mesolithic period, Neolithic period and Chalcolithic period

Who proposed the germ theory of disease

Ans : Louis Pasture

First woman Governor

Ans : Sarojini Naidu

First woman Minister

Ans : Vijayalakshmy Pandit

First woman Chief Minister

Ans : Sucheta Kripalani

First woman Ruler in Delhi

Ans : Raziya Begum

First woman Speaker

Ans : Suseela Nayar

Who was the first woman President of the Indian National Congress?

Ans : Annie Besant

The first woman member in the Planning Commission was

Ans : Durgabhai Deshmukh

Name the first woman who became the Prime minister of a democratic country

Ans : Sirimao Bhandaranaike

The first woman to recipient of Bharat Ratna was

Ans : Indira Gandhi

First Indian woman to climb Mount Everest is

Ans : Bachendri Pal

'Knot' is the unit of

Ans : speed of ships

One 'Knot' is equivalent to

Ans : one nautical mile per hour or approximately 1.85 km per hour

Sound waves can travel in vacuum. True or false

Ans : False

A green leaf placed in a dark room is illuminated by red light. The leaf will appear as

Ans : Black

Which law deals with the elasticity

Ans : Hook’s law

What is the colour of the hottest star?

Ans : Blue

Which planet is known as the red planet?

Ans : Mars

When will be the Earth very near to Sun?

Ans : 1st March

When will be the Earth very far away from the Sun?

Ans : 12th December

The period of one revolution of Sun around the centre of galaxy is called?

Ans : Cosmic year

'Knot' is the unit of

Ans : speed of ships

One 'Knot' is equivalent to

Ans : one nautical mile per hour or approximately 1.85 km per hour

Sound waves can travel in vacuum. True or false

Ans : False

A green leaf placed in a dark room is illuminated by red light. The leaf will appear as

Ans : Black

Which law deals with the elasticity

Ans : Hook’s law

What is the colour of the hottest star?

Ans : Blue

Which planet is known as the red planet?

Ans : Mars

When will be the Earth very near to Sun?

Ans : 1st March

When will be the Earth very far away from the Sun?

Ans : 12th December

The period of one revolution of Sun around the centre of galaxy is called?

Ans : Cosmic year

. Father of electricity

Ans : Michael Faraday

Kalinga Prize is awarded by

Ans : Environment

Who was the first Ramon Magsaysay Award winner from India

Ans : Acharya Vinoba Bhave

The first recipient of Gandhi Peace Prize was

Ans : Dr. Julius N. Nyerera

Nehru Award is instituted for

Ans : International understanding and peace

Kalinga Prize, an International prize is awarded annually for the recognition of outstanding achievement in the interpretation and popularization of

Ans : Science

Magnifying glass was invented by

Ans : Roger Bacon

Polio vaccine was invented by

Ans : Jonas Edward Salk

Who discovered the Blood groups

Ans : Karl Landsteiner

Television was invented by

Ans : John L. Baird

Theory of relativity was explained by

Ans : Albert Einstein

Wireless Telegraph was invented by

Ans : Marconi

Incandescent lamp was invented by

Ans : Edison

X-Ray was discovered by

Ans : Wilhelm Roentgen

Chloroform was invented by

Ans : J.Y. Simpson

Who invented the practical Locomotive

Ans : Richard Trevithick

zone day is observed on

Ans : 16th September

World health day is on

Ans : 7th April

Navy day is celebrated on

Ans : 4th December

World Solar Energy Day

Ans : 3rd May

Commonwealth Day

Ans : Second Monday in March

World Employment Day

Ans : June 5

World Architectural Day

Ans : July 1

National Maritime Day

Ans : 5th April

Anti Terrorist Day

Ans : 21st May

World Anti-smoke Day

Ans : 31st May

Zone day is observed on

Ans : 16th September

World health day is on

Ans : 7th April

Navy day is celebrated on

Ans : 4th December

Ahmedabad is situated on the banks of the river
Ans : Sabarmati

Allahabad is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna

Ayodhya is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Sarayu

Badarinath is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Ganga

Kolkatha is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Hooghly

Cuttack is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Mahanadi

Delhi is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Yamuna

Guwahati is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Brahmaputra

Haridwar is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Ganga

Luckow is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Gomati

Kanpur is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Ganga

Jabalpur is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Narmada

Kota is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Chambal

Ludhiana is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Sutlej

Srinagar is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Jhelum

Surat is situated on the banks of the river

Ans : Tapti

Vijayawada is situated on the banks of the river

Ans

Saturday 12 September 2009

Name of Ministers & their Portfolios

1 Dr. Manmohan Singh

Prime Minister and also in-charge of the Ministries/ Departments not specifically allocated to the charge of any Minister viz.:

(i) Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions;
(ii) Ministry of Planning;
(iii) Department of Atomic Energy
(iv) Department of Space;
(v) Ministry of culture. and
(vi) Ministry of Water Resources.

2 Shri Pranab Mukherjee

Minister of Finance.

3 Shri Sharad Pawar

Minister of Agriculture and Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution. .

4 Shri A.K. Antony

Minister of Defence

5 Shri P.Chidambaram

Minister of Home Affairs.

6

Km. Mamata Benergy

Minister of Railways.

7

Shri S.M. Krishna

Minister of External Affairs.

8

Shri Virbhadra Singh

Minister of Steel

9

Shri Vilasrao Deshmukh

Minister of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises.

10

Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad

Minister of Health and Family Welfare

11

Shri Sushilkumar Shinde

Minister of Power

12

Shri M. Veerappa Moily

Minister of Law and Justice

13

Dr. Farooq Abdullah

Minister of New and Renewable Energy

14

Shri S. Jaipal Reddy

Minister of Urban Development

15

Shri Kamal Nath

Minister of Road Transport and Highways

16

Shri Vayalar Ravi

Minister of Overseas Indian Affairs.

17

Shri Dayanidhi Maran

Minister of Textiles

18

Shri A. Raja

Minister of Communications and Information Technology

19

Shri Murli Deora

Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas.

20

Smt. Ambika Soni

Minister of Information and Broadcasting

21

Shri Mallikarjun Kharge

Minister of Labour and Employment

22

Shri Kapil Sibal

Minister of Human Resource Development

23

Shri B.K. Handique

Minister of Mines and Minister of Development of North Eastern Region.

24

Shri Anand Sharma

Minister of Commerce and Industry

25

Shri C.P. Joshi

Minister of Rural Development and Minister of Panchayati Raj

26

Kumari Selja

Minister of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation and Minister of Tourism

27

Shri Subodh Kant Sahay

Minister of Food Processing Industries

28

Dr. M.S. Gill

Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports

29

Shri G.K. Vasan

Minister of Shipping

30

Shri Pawan Kumar Bansal

Minister of Parliamentary Affairs

31

Shri Mukul Wasnik

Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment

32

Shri Kantilal Bhuria

Minister of Tribal Affairs

33

Shri M.K. Alagiri

Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers

Jai Hind

MODEL UGC -NET PAPER I

This sample paper is for Paper I of the UGC NET Exam, which is common for all streams.

Conducted By:UGC
Maximum Marks:50
Type of Questions:
Objective (Multiple Choice)


1. Which one of the following is the main objective of teaching?

(A) To give information related to the syllabus.

(B) To develop thinking power of students.

(C) To dictate notes to students.

(D) To prepare students to pass the examination.

2. Which one of the following is a good method of teaching?

(A) Lecture and Dictation

(B) Seminar and Project

(C) Seminar and Dictation

(D) Dictation and Assignment

3. Teacher uses teaching aids for

(A) Making teaching interesting

(B) Making teaching within understanding level of students

(C) Making students attentive.

(D) The sake of its use.

4. Effectiveness of teaching depends on

(A) Qualification of teacher

(B) Personality of teacher

(C) Handwriting of teacher

(D) Subject understanding of teacher

5. Which of the following is not characteristic of a good question paper?

(A) Objectivity

(B) Subjectivity

(C) No use of vague words

(D) Reliable.

6. A researcher is generally expected to:

(A) Study the existing literature in a field

(B) Generate new principles and theories

(C) Synthesize the idea given by others

(D) Evaluate the findings of a study

7. One of the essential characteristics of research is:

(A) Replicability

(B) Generalizability

(C) Usability

(D) Objectivity

8. The Government of India conducts Census after every 10 years. The method of research used in this process is:

(A) Case Study

(B) Developmental

(C) Survey

(D) Experimental

9. An academic association assembled at one place to discuss the progress of its work and future plans. Such an assembly is known as a

(A) Conference

(B) Seminar

(C) Workshop

(D) Symposium

10. An investigator studied the census date for a given area and prepared a write-up based on them. Such a write-up is called

(A) Research paper

(B) Article

(C) Thesis

(D) Research report

Read the following passage and answer the Question Nos. 11 to 15

The constitution guarantees every citizen the fundamental right to equality. Yet after 50 years of independence, just one perusal of the female infant mortality figures, the literacy rates and the employment opportunities for women is sufficient evidence that discrimination exists. Almost predictably, this gender, bias is evident in our political system as well. In the 13th Lok Sabha, there were only 43 women MPs out of total of 543; it is not a surprising figure, for never has women's representation in Parliament been more than 10 per cent.

Historically, the manifestos of major political have always encouraged women's participation. It has been merely a charade. So, women's organizations, denied a place on merit, opted for the last resort; a reservation of seats for women in parliament and State Assemblies. Parties, which look at everything with a vote bank in mind, seemed to endorse this. Alas, this too was a mirage.

But there is another aspect also. At a time when caste is the trump card, some politicians want the bill to include further quotas fro women from among minorities and backward castes. There is more to it. A survey shows that there is a general antipathy towards the bill. It is actually a classic case of doublespeak: in public, politicians were endorsing women's reservation but in the backrooms of Parliament, they were busy sabotaging it. The reasons are clear: Men just don't want to vacate their seats of power.

11. The problem raised in the passage reflects badly on our

(A) Political system

(B) Social behaviour

(C) Individual behaviour

(D) Behaviour of a group of people

12. According to the passage, political parties have mostly in mind

(A) Economic prosperity

(B) Vote bank

(C) People' welfare

(D) Patriotism

13. "Trump Card" means

(A) Trying to move a dead horse

(B) Playing the card cautiously

(C) Sabotaging all the moves by others

(D) Making the final jolt for success

14. The sentence "Men just don't want to vacate their seats of power" implies

(A) Lust for power

(B) Desire to serve the nation

(C) Conviction in one's own political abilities

(D) Political corruption

15. What is the percentage of women in the Lok Sabha

(A) 10

(B) 7. 91

(C) 43

(D) 9. 1

16. Informal communication network within the organization is knows as

(A) Interpersonal communication

(B) Intrapersonal Communication

(C) Mass Communication

(D) Grapevine Communication

17. TV Channel launched fro covering only Engineering and Technology subject is known as

(A) Gyan Darshan

(B) Vyas

(C) Eklavya

(D) Kisan

18. In which state the maximum number of periodicals are brought out for public information:

(A) Uttar Pradesh

(B) Tamil Nadu

(C) Kerala

(D) Punjab

19. The main objective of public broadcasting system i. e Prasar Bharti is

(A) Inform, Entertainment & Education

(B) Entertain, Information & Interaction

(C) Educate, Interact & entertain

(D) Entertainment only

20. The competerrcy of an effective communicator can be judged on the basis of:

(A) Personality of communicator

(B) Experience in the field

(C) Interactivity with target audience

(D) Meeting the needs of target audience.

21. Which one of the following belongs to the category of homogeneous date:

(A) Multi-storeyed houses in a colony

(B) Trees in a garden

(C) Vehicular traffic on a highway

(D) Student population in a class

22. In which of the following ways a theory is not different from a belief?

(A) Antecedent - consequent

(B) Acceptability

(C) Verifiability

(D) Demonstratability

23. The state - "Honesty is the best policy" is

(A) A fact

(B) An value

(C) An opinion

(D) A value judgement

24. Which one is like pillar, pole and standard?

(A) Beam

(B) Plank

(C) Shaft

(D) Timber

25. Following incomplete series is presented. Find out the number which should come at the place of question mark which will complete the series: 4, 16, 36, 64, ?

(A) 300

(B) 200

(C) 100

(D) 150

26. The following question is based on the diagram given below. If the two big circles represent animals living on soil and those living in water, and the small circle stands for the animals who both live on soil and in water, which figure represents the relationships among them.



27. Of the following statement, there are two statements both of which cannot be true but both can be false. Which are these two statements?

(i) All machines make noise

(ii) Some machines are noisy

(iii) No machine makes noise

(iv) Some machines are not noisy

(A) (i) and (ii)

(B) (iii) and (iv)

(C) (i) and (iii)

(D) (ii) and (iv)

28. In the following question a statement is followed by two assumptions.

(i) and (ii) . An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted.

Consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the following assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Statement: We need not worry about errors but must try to learn from our errors.

Assumptions:

(i) Errors may take place when we are carrying out certain work.

(ii) We are capable of benefiting from the past and improve our chances of error-free work.

(A) Only assumption (i) is implicit

(B) Only assumption (ii) is implicit

(C) Either assumption (i) or (ii) is implicit

(D) Both the assumptions are implicit

29. The question below is followed by two arguments numbered (i) and (ii) Decide which of the arguments is 'strong' and which is 'weak'. Choose the correct answer from the given below Should the press exercise some self-restraint?

(i) Yes, they should not publish new items which may incite the readers to indulge in wrong practices.

(ii) No. it is the responsibility of the press to present the truth irrespective of the consequences.

(A) Only the argument (i) is strong

(B) Only the argument (ii) is strong

(C) Neither argument (i) nor (ii) is strong

(D) Both the arguments (i) and (ii) are strong

30. Study the argument and the inference drawn from that argument. Given below carefully.

Argument: Anything that goes up definitely falls down. Helicopter goes up. Inference: So the helicopter will definitely fall down.

What in your opinion is the inference drawn from the argument?

(A) Valid

(B) Invalid

(C) Doubtful

(D) Long drawn one

Four students W, X, Y, Z appeared in four papers, I, II, III and IV in a test. Their scores out of 100 are given below.

Students Papers
I
II III IV
W 60
81 45 55
X 59
43 51 A
Y 74
A 71 65
Z 72
76 A 68
Where 'A' stands for absent


Where 'A' stands for absent

Read the above table and answer below mentioned Questions 31 to 35

31. Which candidate has secured between 60-65% marks in aggregate

(A) W

(B) X

(C) Y

(D) Z

32. Who has obtained the lowest average in aggregate.

(A) W

(B) X

(C) Y

(D) Z

33. Who has obtained the highest average

(A) W

(B) X

(C) Y

(D) Z

34. In which paper the lowest marks were obtained by thecandiates

(A) I

(B) II

(C) III

(D) IV

35. Which candidate has secured the highest percentage in the papers appeared

(A) W

(B) X

(C) Y

(D) Z

36. ICT stands for

(A) Information common technology

(B) Information & communication technology

(C) Information and computer technology

(D) Inter connected technology

37. Computer Can

(A) Process both quantitative and qualitative information

(B) Store huge information

(C) Process information and fast accurately

(D) All the above.

38. Satellite Communication works through

(A) Rader

(B) Transponder

(C) Receptor

(D) Transmitter

39. A Computer is that machine which works more like a human brain. This definition of computer is

(A) Correct

(B) Incorrect

(C) Partially correct

(D) None of the above.

40. Information and communication technology includes

(A) E-mail

(B) Internet

(C) Education television

(D) All the above.

41. It is believed that our globe is warming progressively. This global warming will eventually result in.

(A) Increase in availability of usable land.

(B) Uniformity of climate at equator and poles.

(C) Fall in the sea level

(D) melting of polar ice.

42. In which parts of India ground water is affected with arsenic contamination?

(A) Haryana

(B) Andhra Pradesh

(C) Sikkim

(D) West Bengal

43. Sunderban in Hooghly delta is known for

(A) Grasslands

(B) Conifers

(C) Mangroves

(D) Arid forests

44. Sardar Sarover dam is located on the river

(A) Ganga

(B) Godavari

(C) Mahanadi

(D) Narmada

45. Which one of the following trees has medicinal value?

(A) Pine

(B) Teak

(C) Neem

(D) Oak

46. Which one of the following is not considered a part of technical education in India:

(A) Medical

(B) Management

(C) Pharmaceutical

(D) Aeronautical

47. Which of the following is a Central university

(A) Mumbai University

(B) Calcutta University

(C) Delhi University

(D) Madras University

48. Identify the main Principle on which the Parliamentary System Operates

(A) Responsibility of Executive to Legislature

(B) Supremacy of Parliament

(C) Supremacy of Judiciary

(D) Theory of Separation of Power

49. The reservation of seats for women in the Panchayat Raj Institutions is:

(A) 30 % of the total seats

(B) 33 % of the total seate

(C) 33% of the total population

(D) In Proportion to their population

50. Match list I with list II and select the correct answer from the code given below:

LIST ( Institutions)

LIST II( Locations)

1. Indian Veterinary Research Institute

(i) Pune

2. Institute of Armament Technology

(ii) Izat Nagar

3. Indian Institute of Science

(iii) Delhi

4. National Institute for Educational Pannesi

(iv) Bangalore and Administrators

(A) 1(ii), 2(i), 3(iv), 4(iii)

(B) 1(ii), 2(iv), 3(ii), 4(iii)

(C) 1(ii), 2(iii), 3(i), 4(iv)

(D) 1(iv), 2(iii), 3(ii), 4(i)

Source: Sample Paper based on questions provided by UGC Model Paper.

Answer Key:

1. B 2. B 3. B 4. D 5. B 6. B 7. D 8. C 9. A 10. B
11. B 12. B 13. D 14. A 15. B 16. D 17. C 18. C 19. A 20. D
21. A 22. B 23. D 24. A 25. A 26. D 27. C 28. D 29. A 30. D
31. A 32. B 33. A 34. B 35. D 36. B 37. D 38. B 39. A 40. D
41. D 42. D 43. C 44. D 45. C 46. A 47. C 48. A 49. B 50. A