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Monday, 26 July, 2010

36 Tattva of Kashmir Shaivism

1. Shiva Tattva
2. Shakti Tattva
3. Sadashiva Tattva (also known as Iccha tattva)
4. Isvara Tattva (also known as jnana Tattva)
5. Sadvidya (also known as Shuddvidya or kriya) Tattva
6. Maya Tattva
7. Kala Tattva(limitation of activity, authorship)
8. Avidya (ashudh) Tattva (limitation of knowledge)
9. Raga Tattva (limitation of interest)
10. Niyati Tattva (restriction)
11. Akala  (or Kaala) Tattva (Time sequence limitation)
12. Parusha Tattva
13. Prakriti (or mul prakriti) Tattva
14. Buddhi (intellect)– Faculty of judgement
15. Manas – Faculty of Imagination
16. Ahamkara – Personal ego
17. Sravanendreya (Hearing)
18. Supershanendreya (Feeling by touch)
19. Darshanendreya (Seeing)
20. Resanendreya (Taste)
21. Ghranendreya (Smell)
22. Vagendreya (Voice or expression)
23. Hastendreya (Handling)
24. Padendreya (Locomotion)
25. Payvendreya (Rejecting, Discharging)
26. Upasthendreya (Resting or recreating)
27. Shabdatanmra (sound)
28. Sparshatanmra (Feel)
29. Rupatanmra (Color)
30. Rasatanmra (Flavor)
31. Ghandhatanmra (Odour)
32. Akasha (ether)
33. Vayu (Air)
34. Agni (Fire)
35. Apas (Water)
36. Pritvi (Earth)

The twenty-five tattvas of Sankhya Philosophy

त्रिगुणसाम्यावस्था प्रकृतिः। Nature (prakriti) is the state of equipoise of sattva, rajas and tamas. 

From Nature [proceeds] Mind (mahat); from Mind, Self-consciousness (ahamkara); from Self-consciousness, the five Subtle Elements (tanmatra), and both sets [external and internal] of Organs (indriya); and, from the Subtle Elements, the Gross Elements (sthula-bhuta). [Then there is] Soul (purusha). Such is the class of twenty-five.  Sankhya Karika 

25. Purusha – the sentient being (consciousness), the experiencer

24. Prakriti – primal nature (root of all insentient matter)

Antahkaranas – internal organs
23. Mahat-Buddhi – intelligence
22. Ahamkara – objective ego 
21. Manas – mind

Jnanendriyas – organs of knowledge
20. Stotra – organ of hearing (ears)
19. Tvak – organ of touching (skin)
18. Chakshu – organ of seeing (eyes)
17. Rasana – organ of tasting (palette)
16. Ghrana – organ of smelling (nose)

Karmendriyas – organs of action
15. Vak – organ of speech (tongue)
14. Pani – organ of grasping (hands)
13. Pada – organ of movement (feet)
12. Payu – organ of excretion (anus)
11. Upastha – organ of sex

Tanmatras – subtle elements
10. Shabda – sound
9. Sparsha – feel
8. Rupa – form
7. Rasa – taste
6. Gandha - smell

Mahabhutas – gross elements
5. Akasha – space
4. Vayu – air
3. Tejas – fire
2. Ap – water
1. Prithivi - earth


Research Papers


अम्बिकानाथ झा जन्मशती समारोह निमित्त इलाहाबाद में प्रकाश्यमान ग्रन्थ सहस्रधारा हेतु ।****************************************************
हे हृदयेश्वरी : एक कटाक्षालोचन

यौवनोन्माद की बात छोड भी दें तो भी धीर- गभीर जनों से अपनी प्रियतमा के लिये ’हृदयेश्वरी’ पद सम्बोधन सुनकर यकायक ऐसा लगता था कि हो न हो यह उरोभागस्थ  रक्ताभिसरणकार्य करने वाले शरीरावयवविशेषमात्र नही हो सकता। बस यही चिन्तन शोधपत्र के रूप में प्रस्तुत हो सका।

शोधपत्र में हृदय की उक्त अवधारणा के अतिरिक्त मस्तिष्क (चित्त) के रूप में हृदय को प्रस्तुत किया गया है। इसके साथ ही वेद , उपनिषद, दर्शन, चरकसंहिता महाभारत गत वचनों को उद्धृत किया गया है। अन्त में ’ईश्वरी’ पद की चर्चा मनोविज्ञान के धरातल पर किया गया है।

निष्कर्षतः यह लेख हृदय के पारम्परिक अर्थ को तिरस्कृत कर चित्त रूप स्थापित करता है, और प्रियतमा (पत्नी आदि) को नेतृरूप प्रदान करता है।
अन्त में संदर्भ सूची दी गयी है जो मूल तथ्य तक पहुंचने मे अध्येताओं की मदद करेगी।
आयुर्विज्ञान एवं मनोविज्ञान का गहन अध्ययन न होने के कारण स्खलन स्वाभाविक है, जिसे सुधी जन क्षमा करेंगे एवं त्रुटियों से अवगत कराने का प्रयास करेंगे।
  • Abstract का हिन्दी अनुवाद यहाँ प्रस्तुत है।
  • अम्बिकानाथ झा जन्मशती समारोह निमित्त इलाहाबाद में प्रकाश्यमान ग्रन्थ सहस्रधारा हेतु लिखित।
  • भाषा- मैथिली

Accepted for presentation in
WAVES 2010 - Eighth International Conference
August 04 - 07, 2010 at University of West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago


Pratyabhijyā Darśana and it’s Relevance

The world of knowledge is meaningless if Indian knowledge tradition is not appearing on the face. If we discuss about the Indian knowledge tradition, it would be beyond justice to escape The Kāśmir Śaiva Philosophy, which expresses the practical face of epistemology. During the period of Mādhavāchārya, a great Indian philosopher and writer, it was in practice but ignorance started at time elapsed. Its importance revived, in the present era when Indian Knowledge was recognized every where in the world. The origin of Kāśmir Śaiva Philosophy is derived from the Āgamika tradition. This tradition was greatly supported by Abhinava Gupta and many Indian Philosophers.
The fundamental element of Kāśmir Śaivism is param Śiva, who is situated along the triangle of knower, knowable object and knowledge. The parama Śiva is the route of the living and non-living things that is controlled by his own wish, which is supreme power. Thus Param Śiva  is reflected all around the world by his own wish and ultimate power. This concept accepts a total of 36 elements,   Param Śiva being at the ultimate one, as the. The concept of observer in Śaiva philosophy is seven layered, in which we parm Śiva at the top, and living and non living creature at the bottom and The Param Śiva is at the Peak. The logic behind this concept is based on the concept of ‘Mal’.
This research paper is being presented to analyze the concept of observer in Kāśmir Śaiva Philosophy and to clarify the concept of layer and ‘Mal’.

Accepted for presentation in
18th International Congress of Vedanta
University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, USA,
& also
Accepted for presentation in
2009 International Conference on Social Science and Humanities

A critical review on the indefinable power ‘Māyā’

   Eastern scholars so far had talked a lot on various aspects of life as well as invisible world, in the guise of theology and philosophy. Indian intellectual tradition has also a lot of contributions and contains several qualities e.g. it always wants to adjust between Loka and sāśtra. Loka (society) gives guidance to sāśtra. sāśtra would never be opposite to Loka. The other quality of this tradition is to think about the society as a whole, not as a particular person.
In this thought system, darśana is a guideline to get the supreme goal of human being and it gives the valuable reason to search that how this cosmos has been created. Mādhavāchārya showed sixteen paths in Indian philosophical system, in which pratyabhigyā darśana was also an important path in the philosophical systems. This darśana was ignored later on. But during 19th century, it grew like a river. At present it is well respected path in Indian philosophical systems. In this system cosmological concepts never try to interfere about no dualism but in Advaita Vedānta, a cosmological concept Māyā always tries to destroy the whole non dualism.
Here in this research paper endeavors have been made to focus on the the acceptability of the indefinable power ‘Māyā’, which has been accepted by Jagadguru Śaňkarācārya, with respect to Viśişţādvaita as well as Kāśmīra şaiva philosophical system. Stress has been laid mainly on the perspective whether the indefinable power ‘Māyā’ is acceptable or not? 

Accepted for presentation in
March 10-14, 2009, B.R. Ambedkar Open University, Hyderabad) FOCAL THEME our planet in crisis , 

(Abstract is attached here)

Accepted for presentation in
International Sanskrit Conference
18-20 July, 2009

Is kal a relative or absolute entity?
 (With reference to classical and modern thought systems.)"

Here in this research paper  titled "Is kal a relative or absolute entity? (With reference to classical and modern thought systems.)" endeavors have been made to focus on the concept of Time with respect to eastern  and western philosophical systems as well as modern science. Stress has been laid mainly on perspective whether time is an absolute or relative entity?

Accepted for presentation in
84th Indian Philosophical congress
University of Mumbai
Oct 24-27, 2009


Meaning : An Introduction
(In the perspective of Sanskrit vyakaran Darshan)

This research paper focuses on the concept of meaning  drawn on Sanskrit Philosophy of Grammar and an effort is made to find answers to some important questions  such as what is the meaning 'the  of meaning'? What is the form of meaning? and principle of meaning? What does it mean to know the meaning?

Accepted for presentation in
20,21,22 November 2009
Gurukula kangri University, Haridvar, UK , India 249404

राष्ट्रप्रेम्णः वैदिक दृष्िः
(Abstract is attached here


Tirupati Sanskrit Vidyapith, Tirupati, A.P.
Discovery of Myself
(In the light of Aupanişadika tradition)
The route of Indian Philosophical system rests in Aupannishadika thoughts, that are why Upanishads are said to be the bed rocks of Indian Philosophical domain. The main theme of almost all the Upanishads are Ātman. It is described in Kenopanisad as almighty[1]. The essential nature of the Ātman is  Jñātā and Kartā[2].
The term ‘Upanishads’ literally means उप + नि +सद् ("to sit around"). The Aachary (Teacher) reveals the ‘knowledge of Ātmanto them. Hence we can say that, the word was first introduced in order to refer to secret formula which contained the essence of the teaching of the Guru. But gradually in due course of time, it came to refer to the entire aupanishadika texts and conveys more and more mysterious knowledge.
Our Aupanisadika Aacharya (as the philosopher from the earliest times) tried to investigate the answer of a very crucial question i.e. ‘what is the ultimate reality?’ Who am I? From where I came? etc. and tried to find answers according to the logic and existing situations of the society.  As it is already mentioned that there are several concepts which are described in Upanishad. But in this paper it is highlighted on the fundamental issue of the Upanishads viz., the nature of Atman. The Upanishads reveals the nature of the Atman or the individual self along with the interpretation of the Supreme Soul[3].
As it described earlier ātman can be known as jeevātman as well as param ātman . both are not different. It is the knower. If we look at the life of the human beings, we find that the whole life itself is a process of knowing. It starts with a subject who knows. The jivātman  or the Knower that which is conscious of pleasure and pain, the conscious of time and space and disturbances of all sorts is itself is untouched by all these changes[4]. Here in this paper It is presented the essential nature of the self well known as Ātman.

[1] श्रोत्रस्य श्रोत्रं मनो यद्वाचो… केनोपनिषद २
[2] आत्मनः एष प्राणो जायते…। प्रश्नोपनिषद् ३/३
[3] अनेजदेकं मनसो जवीयो..। ईशोपनिषद ४
[4] एतैरेषपृथग्भावो….। माण्डूक्योपनिषद् ३०

Oriental Studies

Oriental Studies


English Translation of Shiva Sutra

Engish Translation
English translation by Subhash C . Kak. For earlier translations see Jaideva Singh (1979) and Dyczkowski (1992). Note that Jaideva Singh
has 77 sutras whereas Dyczkowski has 79; for the reason why the canonical text is likely to have had 78 sutras see Kak (1994).

*1- Universal consciousness

1-1 Consciousness is the self.
1-2 (Ordinary) knowledge consists of associations.
1-3 Sets of axioms generate structures.
1-4 The ground of knowledge is mat\drka.
1-5 The upsurge (of consciousness) is Bhairava.
1-6 By union with the energy centers one withdraws from the universe.
1-7 Even during waking, sleep, and deep sleep one can experience
the fourth state (transcending consciousness).
1-8 (Sensory) knowledge is obtained in the waking state.
1-9 Dreaming is free ranging of thoughts.
1-10 Deep sleep is maya, the irrational.
1-11 The experiencer of the three states is the lord of the senses.
1-12 The domain of the union is an astonishment.
1-13 The power of the will is the playful uma.
1-14 The observed has a structure.
1-15 By fixing the mind on its core one can comprehend
perceivable and emptiness.
1-16 Or by contemplating the pure principle one is free of
the power that binds (to associations).
1-17 Right discernment is the knowledge of the self.
1-18 The bliss of the sight is the joy of samadhi.
1-19 The body emerges when the energies unite.
1-20 Elements unite, elements separate, and the universe is gathered.
1-21 Pure knowledge leads to a mastery of the wheel (of energies).
1-22 The great lake (of space-time) is experienced through the
power of mantra.
*2- The emergence of innate knowledge
2-1 The mind is mantra.
2-2 Effort leads to attainment.
2-3 The secret of mantra is the being of the body of knowledge.
2-4 The emergence of the mind in the womb is the forgetting of
common knowledge.
2-5 When the knowledge of one's self arises one moves in the
sky of consciousness---the Shiva's state.
2-6 The guru is the means.
2-7 The awakening of the wheel of mat\drka (the elemental
2-8 The body is the oblation.
2-9 The food is knowledge.
2-10 With the extinction of knowledge emerges the vision of
*3- The transformations of the individual
3-1 The mind is the self.
3-2 (Material) knowledge is bondage (association).
3-3 Maya is the lack of discernment of the principles
of transformation.
3-4 The transformation is stopped in the body.
3-5 The quieting of the vital channels, the mastery of the
elements, the withdrawal from the elements, and the separation of
the elements.
3-6 Perfection is through the veil of delusion.
3-7 Overcoming delusion and by boundless extension innate
knowledge is achieved.
3-8 Waking is the second ray (of consciousness).
3-9 The self is the actor.
3-10 The inner self is the stage.
3-11 The senses are the spectators.
3-12 The pure state is achieved by the power of the intellect.
3-13 Freedom (creativity) is achieved.
3-14 As here so elsewhere.
3-15 Emission (of consciousness) is the way of nature and so
what is not external is seen as external.
3-16 Attention to the seed.
3-17 Seated one sinks effortlessly into the lake (of consciousness).
3-18 The measure of consciousness fashions the world.
3-19 As (limited) knowledge is transcended, birth is transcended.
3-20 Maheshvari and other mothers (sources) of beings
reside in the sound elements.
3-21 The fourth (state of consciousness) should be used to
oil the (other) three (states of consciousness).
3-22 Absorbed (in his nature), one must penetrate (the phonemes)
with one's mind.
3-23 The lower plane arises in the center (of the phoneme).
3-24 A balanced breathing leads to a balanced vision.
3-25 What was destroyed rises again by the joining of perceptions
with the objects of experience.
3-26 He becomes like Shiva.
3-27 The activity of the body is the vow.
3-28 The recitation of the mantras is the discourse.
3-29 Self-knowledge is the boon.
3-30 He who is established is the means and knowledge.
3-31 The universe is teh aggregate of his powers.
3-32 Persistence and absorption.
3-33 Even when this (maintenance and dissolution) there is no
break (in awareness) due to the perceiving subjectivity.
3-34 The feeling of pleasure and pain is external.
3-35 The one who is free of that is alone (with consciousness).
3-36 A mass of delusion the mind is subject to activity.
3-37 When separateness is gone, action can lead to creation.
3-38 The power to create is based on one's own experience.
3-39 That which precedes the three (states of consciousness)
vitalizes them.
3-40 The same stability of mind (should permeate) the body,
senses and external world.
3-41 Craving leads to the extroversion of the inner process.
3-42 When established in pure awareness, (the craving) is
destroyed and the (empirical) individual ceases to exist.
3-43 Although cloaked in the elements one is not free, but,
like the lord, one is supreme.
3-44 The link with the vital breath is natural.
3-45 Concentrating on the center within the nose, what use
are the left and the right channels or su\dsumna?
3-46 May (the individual) merge (in the lord) once again.

Shiva Sutra


  • चैतन्यमात्मा . १-१.
  • ज्ञानं बन्धः . १-२.
  • योनिवर्गः कलाशरीरम् . १-३.
  • ज्ञानाधिष्ठानं मातृका . १-४.
  • उद्यमो भैरवः . १-५.
  • शक्तिचक्रसन्धाने विश्वसंहारः . १-६.
  • जाग्रत्स्वप्नसुषुप्तभेदे तुर्याभोगसंभवः . १-७.
  • ज्ञानं जाग्रत् . १-८.
  • स्वप्नो विकल्पाः . १-९.
  • अविवेको मायासौषुप्तम् . १-१०.
  • त्रितयभोक्ता वीरेशः . १-११.
  • विस्मयो योगभूमिकाः . १-१२.
  • इच्छा शक्तिरुमा कुमारी . १-१३.
  • दृश्यं शरीरम् . १-१४.
  • हृदये चित्तसंघट्टाद् दृश्यस्वापदर्शनम् . १-१५.
  • शुद्धतत्त्वसन्धानाद् वा अपशुशक्तिः . १-१६.
  • वितर्क आत्मज्ञानम् . १-१७.
  • लोकानन्दः समाधिसुखम् . १-१८.
  • शक्तिसन्धाने शरीरोत्पत्तिः . १-१९.
  • भूतसन्धान भूतपृथक्त्व विश्वसंघट्टाः . १-२०.
  • शुद्धविद्योदयाच्चक्रेशत्व सिद्धिः . १-२१.
  • महाह्रदानुसन्धानान्मन्त्रवीर्यानुभवः . १-२२.
 २. शाक्तोपाय
  • चित्तं मन्त्रः . २-१.
  • प्रयत्नः साधकः . २-२.
  • विद्याशरीरसत्ता मन्त्ररहस्यम् . २-३.
  • गर्भे चित्तविकासोऽविशिष्ट विद्यास्वप्नः . २-४.
  • विद्यासमुत्थाने स्वाभाविके खेचरी शिवावस्था . २-५.
  • गुरुरुपायः . २-६.
  • मातृकाचक्रसम्बोधः . २-७.
  • शरीरं हविः . २-८.
  • ज्ञानं अन्नम् . २-९.
  • विद्यासंहारे तदुत्थ स्वप्न दर्शनम् . २-१०.
  • आत्मा चित्तम् . ३-१.
  • ज्ञानं बन्धः . ३-२.
  • कलादीनां तत्त्वानां अविवेको माया . ३-३.
  • शरीरे संहारः कलानाम् . ३-४.
  • नाडी संहार भूतजय भूतकैवल्य भूतपृथक्त्वानि . ३-५.
  • मोहावरणात् सिद्धिः . ३-६.
  • मोहजयाद् अनन्ताभोगात् सहजविद्याजयः . ३-७.
  • जाग्रद् द्वितीयकरः . ३-८.
  • नर्तक आत्मा . ३-९.
  • रङ्गोऽन्तरात्मा . ३-१०.
  • प्रेक्षकाणीन्द्रियाणि . ३-११.
  • धीवशात् सत्त्वसिद्धिः . ३-१२.
  • सिद्धः स्वतन्त्रभावः . ३-१३.
  • यथा तत्र तथान्यत्र . ३-१४.
  • विसर्गस्वाभाव्याद् अबहिः स्थितेस्तत्स्थितिः . ३-१५.
  • बीजावधानम् . ३-१६.
  • आसनस्थः सुखं ह्रदे निमज्जति . ३-१७.
  • स्वमात्रा निर्माणं आपादयति . ३-१८.
  • विद्या अविनाशे जन्म विनाशः . ३-१९.
  • कवर्गादिषु माहेश्वर्याद्याः पशुमातरः . ३-२०.
  • त्रिषु चतुर्थं तैलवदासेच्यम् . ३-२१.
  • मग्नः स्वचित्तेन प्रविशेत् . ३-२२.
  • प्राण समाचारे समदर्शनम् . ३-२३.
  • मध्येऽवर प्रसवः . ३-२४.
  • मात्रास्वप्रत्यय सन्धाने नष्टस्य पुनरुत्थानम् . ३-२५.
  • शिवतुल्यो जायते . ३-२६.
  • शरीरवृत्तिर्व्रतम् . ३-२७.
  • कथा जपः . ३-२८.
  • दानं आत्मज्ञानम् . ३-२९.
  • योऽविपस्थो ज्ञाहेतुश्च . ३-३०.
  • स्वशक्ति प्रचयोऽस्य विश्वम् . ३-३१.
  • स्तिथिलयौ . ३-३२.
  • तत् प्रवृत्तावप्यनिरासः संवेत्तृभावात् . ३-३३.
  • सुख दुःखयोर्बहिर्मननम् . ३-३४.
  • तद्विमुक्तस्तु केवली . ३-३५.
  • मोहप्रतिसंहतस्तु कर्मात्मा . ३-३६.
  • भेद तिरस्कारे सर्गान्तर कर्मत्वम् . ३-३७.
  • करणशक्तिः स्वतोऽनुभवात् . ३-३८.
  • त्रिपदाद्यनुप्राणनम् . ३-३९.
  • चित्तस्थितिवत् शरीर करण बाह्येषु . ३-४०.
  • अभिलाषाद्बहिर्गतिः संवाह्यस्य . ३-४१.
  • तदारूढप्रमितेस्तत्क्षयाज्जीवसंक्षयः . ३-४२.
  • भूतकञ्चुकी तदा विमुक्तो भूयः पतिसमः परः . ३-४३.
  • नैसर्गिकः प्राणसंबन्धः . ३-४४.
  • नासिकान्तर्मध्य संयमात् किमत्र सव्यापसव्य सौषुम्नेषु . ३-४५.
  • भूयः स्यात् प्रतिमीलनम् . ३-४६.