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This Blog is related to blogger's academic life specially related with his research field (Computational Sanskrit & Kashmir Shavism). It explores Computaional aspects of Sanskrit and also the theology, philosophy and tradition from the viewpoint of various schools, texts, and teachers of Kashmir Shaiva Philosophy.It contains the comparative cosmological views of Sankhya & KS. This blog also reflects the blogger's personal experience with
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Saturday, 19 September, 2009

Terms & explanation 2

Military ,Aviation And Naval Terms

ARSENAL Place where arms and ammunition are manufactured and stored.
BATTALION An army unit consisting of 1,000 combatants led by a Lieutenant Colonel.
BATTERY A unit of a number of artillery guns, mobile or fixed.
BULL'S EYE The point of target that has t be aimed or hit while practicing shooting.
COCKPIT Pilot's seat in the fuselage of an aeroplane.
CAMOUFLAGE Hiding of objects by various means to deceive or bamboozle the enemy about their real location thereby protecting them from air and ground attacks.
COMMANDO A mobile body of guerilla fighters.
CONSCRIPTION Compulsory recruitment of personnel for service in the armed forces.
DIVISION Normally, a division has 20,000 troops commanded by a Major General equipped with two or more brigades of infantry with befitting artillery and engineering equipment.
DOGFIGHT An aerial duel between two or more aircraft's at a close range.
FLOTILLA A fleet of boats or small ships.
GUIDED MISSILES Powered by rockets or jet propulsion, they are unmanned, self propelled air or space vehicle fitted with explosive warheads. Guided missiles are either self directed with inlaid controls or under remote controls based on the firing range.
ICBM Inter Continental Ballistic Missile is a rocket propelled surface to surface guided missile carrying a nuclear warhead which can reach a destined city or installation in the world and destroy it entirely.
INTERMEDIATE RANGE BALLISTIC MISSILE (IRBM) It is of three types, viz, air to air, surface to air, and air to surface. Air to air guided missile, launched from an aircraft is employed to hit target in the battlefield. Surface to surface and air to air guided missiles are employed against enemy missiles or targets.
JUMBO JET A large passenger jet aircraft having the capacity to life nearly 447 passengers.
NUCLEAR UMBRELLA Giving air shield to a city or by nuclear weapons. It is also called parasol or Sombrero.
STAR WARS Deployment of weapons on satellites in space with a view to destroy inter-continental ballistic missiles in space coming from the enemy.
SQUADRON Air Force formation consisting of 20 aircraft's commanded by a Squadron Leader.


Military ,Aviation And Naval Terms

ARSENAL Place where arms and ammunition are manufactured and stored.
BATTALION An army unit consisting of 1,000 combatants led by a Lieutenant Colonel.
BATTERY A unit of a number of artillery guns, mobile or fixed.
BULL'S EYE The point of target that has t be aimed or hit while practicing shooting.
COCKPIT Pilot's seat in the fuselage of an aeroplane.
CAMOUFLAGE Hiding of objects by various means to deceive or bamboozle the enemy about their real location thereby protecting them from air and ground attacks.
COMMANDO A mobile body of guerilla fighters.
CONSCRIPTION Compulsory recruitment of personnel for service in the armed forces.
DIVISION Normally, a division has 20,000 troops commanded by a Major General equipped with two or more brigades of infantry with befitting artillery and engineering equipment.
DOGFIGHT An aerial duel between two or more aircraft's at a close range.
FLOTILLA A fleet of boats or small ships.
GUIDED MISSILES Powered by rockets or jet propulsion, they are unmanned, self propelled air or space vehicle fitted with explosive warheads. Guided missiles are either self directed with inlaid controls or under remote controls based on the firing range.
ICBM Inter Continental Ballistic Missile is a rocket propelled surface to surface guided missile carrying a nuclear warhead which can reach a destined city or installation in the world and destroy it entirely.
INTERMEDIATE RANGE BALLISTIC MISSILE (IRBM) It is of three types, viz, air to air, surface to air, and air to surface. Air to air guided missile, launched from an aircraft is employed to hit target in the battlefield. Surface to surface and air to air guided missiles are employed against enemy missiles or targets.
JUMBO JET A large passenger jet aircraft having the capacity to life nearly 447 passengers.
NUCLEAR UMBRELLA Giving air shield to a city or by nuclear weapons. It is also called parasol or Sombrero.
STAR WARS Deployment of weapons on satellites in space with a view to destroy inter-continental ballistic missiles in space coming from the enemy.
SQUADRON Air Force formation consisting of 20 aircraft's commanded by a Squadron Leader.


SCIENCE TERMINOLOGY
Science is knowledge, often as opposed to intuition, belief, etc. It is, in fact, systematized knowledge derived from observation, study and experimentation carried on in order to determine the nature or principles of what is being studied. There are many sciences, each concerned with a particular field of study. In each science measurement plays an important part. In each science, too, a study is made of the laws according to which objects react. Here are some sciences.

ACOUSTICSThe study of sound (or the science of sound).

ACROBATICS:The art of performing acrobatic feats (gymnastics).

AERODYNAMICS:
(i) The branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of air and other gases.
(ii) The study of the motion and control of solid bodies like aircraft, missiles, etc., in air

AERONAUTICS: The Science or art of flight.

AEROSTATICS:The branch of statics that deals with gases in equilibrium and with gases and bodies in them.

AESTHETICS:The philosophy of fine arts.

AETIOLOGY:The science of causation.

AGROBIOLOGY:The science of plant life and plant nutrition.

AGRONOMICS:The science of managing land or crops.

AGRONOMY:The science of soil management and the production of field crops.

AGROSTOLOGY:The study of grasses.

ALCHEMY:Chemistry in ancient times.

ANATOMY:The science dealing with the structure of animals, plants or human body.

ANTHROPOLOGY:The science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural development of mankind.

ARBORICULTURE:Cultivation of trees and vegetables.

ARCHAEOLOGY:The study of antiquities.

ASTROLOGY:The ancient art of predicting the course of human destinies with the help of indications deduced from the position and movement of the heavenly bodies.

ASTRONAUTICS:The science of space travel.

ASTRONOMY: - The study of the heavenly bodies.

ASTROPHYSICS:The branch of astronomy concerned with the physical nature of heavenly bodies.

BACTERIOLOGY: The study of bacteria.

BIOCHEMISTRY: The study of chemical processes of living things.

BIOLOGY: The study of living things.

BIOMETRY:The application of mathematics to the study of living things.

BIONICS:The study of functions, characteristics and phenomena observed in the living world and the application of this knowledge to the world of machines.

BIONOMICS:The study of the relation of an organism to its environments.

BIONOMY:The science of the laws of life.

BIOPHYSICS:The physics of vital processes (living things).

BOTANY:The study of plants.

CALISTHENICS:The systematic exercises for attaining strength and gracefulness.

CARTOGRAPHY:Science of Map Making.

CERAMICS:The art and technology of making objects from clay, etc. (Pottery).

CHEMISTRY:The study of elementary and their laws of combination and behaviour.

CHEMOTHERAPY:The treatment of disease by using chemical substances.

CHRONOBIOLOGY:The study of the duration of life.

CHRONOLOGY:The science of arranging time in periods and ascertaining the dates and historical order of past events.

CONCHOLOGY:The branch of zoology dealing with the shells of mollusks.

COSMOGONY:The science of the nature of heavenly bodies.

COSMOGRAPHY: The science that describes and maps the main feature of the universe.

COSMOLOGY:The science of the nature, origin and history of the universe.

CRIMINOLOGY:The study of crime and criminals.

CRYTOGRAPHY:The study of ciphers (secret writings).

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY:The study of the structure, forms and properties of crystals.

CRYGENICS:The science dealing with the production, control and application of very low temperatures.

CYTOCHEMISTRY:The branch of cytology dealing with the chemistry of cells.

CYTOGENETICS:The branch of biology dealing with the study of heredity from the point of view of cytology and genetics.

CYTOLOGY:The study of cells, especially their formation, structure and functions.

DACTYLOGRAPHY:The study of fingerprints for the purpose of identification.

DACTYLIOLOGY:The technique of communication by signs made with the fingers. It is generally used by the deaf.

ECOLOGY:The study of the relation of animals and plants to their surroundings, animate and inanimate.

ECONOMETRICS: The application of mathematics in testing economic theories.

ECONOMICS:The science dealing with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.

EMBRYOLOGY:The study of development of embryos.

ENTOMOLOGY:The study of insects.

EPIDEMIOLOGY:The branch of medicine dealing with epidemic diseases.

EPIGRAPHY:The study of inscriptions.

ETHICS:Psychological study of moral principles.

ETHNOGRAPHY:A branch of anthropology dealing with the scientific description of individual cultures.

ETHNOLOGY:A branch of anthropology that deals with the origin, distribution and distinguishing characteristics of the races of mankind.

ETHOLOGY:The study of animal behaviour.

ETYMOLOGY:The study of origin and history of words.

EUGENICS:The study of the production of better offspring by the careful selection of parents.

GENEALOGY:The study of family ancestries and histories.

GENECOLOGY:The study of genetical composition of plant population in relation to their habitats.

GENESIOLOGY:The science of generation.

GENETICS:The branch of biology dealing with the phenomena of heredity and the laws governing it.

GEOBIOLOGY:The biology of terrestrial life.

GEOBOTANY:The branch of botany dealing with all aspects of relations between plants and the earth's surface.

GEOCHEMISTRY:The study of the chemical composition of the earth's crust and the changes which take place within it.

GEOGRAPHY:The development of science of the earth's surface, physical features, climate, population, etc.

GEOLOGY:The science that deals with the physical history of the earth.

GEOMEDICINE:The branch of medicine dealing with the influence of climate and environmental conditions on health.

GEOMORPHOLOGY:The study of the characteristics, origin and development of land forms.

GEOPHYSICS:The physics of the earth.

GERONTOLOGY:The study of old age, its phenomena, diseases, etc.


HELIOTHEARPY: The sun cure.

HISTOLOGY:The study of tissues.

HORTICULTURE:The cultivation of flowers, fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants.

HYDRODYNAMICS:The mathematical study of the forces, energy and pressure of liquid in motion.

HYDROGRAPHY:The science of water measurements of the earth with special reference of their use for navigation.

HYDROLOGY:The study of water with reference to its occurrence and properties in the hydrosphere and atmosphere.

HYDROMETALLURGY:The process of extracting metals at ordinary temperature by bleaching ore with liquids.

HYDROPATHY:The treatment of disease by the internal and external use of water.

HYDROPONICS:The cultivation of plants by placing the roots in liquid nutrient solutions rather than in soil.

HYDROSTATICS: The mathematical study of forces and pressure in liquids.

HYGIENE:The science of health and its preservation.

LCONOGRAPHY:Teaching with the aid of pictures and models.

LCONOLOGY:The study of symbolic representations.

JURISPRUDENCE:The science of law.

LEXICOGRAPHY:The writing or compiling of dictionaries.

MAMMOGRAPHY:Radiography of the mammary glands.

METALLOGRAPHY:The study of the crystalline structures of metals and alloys.

METALLURGY:The process of extracting metals from their ores.

METEOROLOGY:The science of the atmosphere and its phenomena.

METROLOGY:The scientific study of weights and measures.

MICROBIOLOGY:The study of minute living organisms, including bacteria, molds and pathogenic protozoa.

MOLECCULAR BIOLOGY:The study of the structure of the molecules which are of importance in biology.

MORPHOLOGY:The science of organic forms and structures.

MYCOLOGY:The study of fungi and fungus diseases.

NEUROLOGY:The study of the nervous system, its functions and its disorders.

NEUROPATHOLOGY:The study of diseases of the nervous system.

NUMEROLOGY:The study of numbers. The study of the date and year of one's birth and to determine the influence on one's future life.

NUMISMATICS:The study of coins and medals.

ODONTOGRAPHY:A description of the teeth.

ODONTOLOGY:The scientific study of the teeth.

OPTICS:The study of nature and properties of light.

ORNITHOLOGY:The study of birds.

ORTHOEPY:The study of correct pronunciation.

ORTHOPEDICS:The science of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and abnormalities of musculoskeletal systems.

OSTEOLOGY:The study of the bones.

OSTEOPATHOLOGY:Any disease of bones.

OSTEOPATHY:A therapeutic system based upon detecting and correcting faulty structure.

PALEOBOTANY:The study of fossil plants.

PALEONTOLOGY:The study of fossils.

PALYNOLOGY:The pollen analysis.

PATHOLOGY:The study of diseases.

PEDAGOGY:The art or method of teaching.

PHARYNGOLOGY:The science of the pharynx and its diseases.

PHENOLOGY:The study of periodicity phenomena of plants.

PHILATELY:The collection and study of postage stamps, revenue stamps, etc.

PHILOLOGY:The study of written records, their authenticity, etc.

PHONETICS:The study of speech sounds and the production, transmission, reception, etc.

PHOTOBIOLOGY:The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.

PHENOLOGY:The study of the faculties and qualities of minds from the shape of the skull.

PHTHISIOLOGY:The scientific study of tuberculosis.

PHYCOLOGY:The study of algae.

PHYSICAL SCIENCE:The study of natural laws and processes other than those peculiar to living matters, as in physics, chemistry and astronomy.

PHYSICS:The study of the properties of matter.

PHYSIOGRAPHY:The science of physical geography.

PHYSIOLOGY:The study of the functioning of the various organs of living beings.

PHYTOGENY:Origin and growth of plants.

POMOLOGY:The science that deals with fruits and fruit growing.

PSYCHOLOGY:The study of human and animal behaviour.

RADIO ASTRONOMY:The study of heavenly bodies by the reception and analysis of the radio frequency electromagnetic radiations which they emit or reflect.

RADIOBIOLOGY:The branch of biology which deals with the effects of radiations on living organisms.

RADIOLOGY:The study of X-rays and radioactivity.

RHEOLOGY:The study of the deformation and flow of matter.

SEISMOLOGY:The study of earthquakes and the phenomena associated with it.

SELENOLOGY:The scientific study of moon, its nature, origin, movements, etc.

SERICULTURE:The raising of silk worms for the production of raw silk.

SOCIOLOGY:The study of human society.

SPECTROSCOPE:The study of matter and energy by the use of spectroscope.

TELEOLOGY:These study of the evidences of design or purpose in nature.

TELEPATHY:Communication between minds by some means other than sensory perception.

THERAPEUTICS:The science and art of healing.

TOPOGRAPHY:A special description of a part or region

TAXICOLOGY:The study of poisons.

VIROLOGY:The study of viruses.

ZOOLOGY:The study of animal life.


Importans of Laws and Principles


ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE:

When a body is immersed either wholly or partially in a fluid at rest, the apparent loss of weight suffered by it is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by it.
AVOGADRO's LAW:

Equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules.
BLACK BODY RADIATION:

A black body absorbs heat or radiates heat more quickly than any other body.
BOILING POINT:

It increases with the increase of pressure. The presence of impurities also raises the boiling point of a liquid.
CENTRE OF GRAVITY:

A body will remain at rest only if the vertical line through the centres of gravity passes through the base of support of the body.
COULOMB'S LAW:

The force between the two electric charges reduces to a quarter of its former value when the distance between them is doubled.
FARADAY'S LAWS OF ELECTROLYSIS:

The amount of chemical change during electrolysis is proportional to the charge passed.
The masses of substances liberated or deposited by the same quantity of electric charge are proportional to their chemical equivalents.
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MATTER:

In chemical changes, matter is neither created nor destroyed. The sum total of the masses of all the products of a chemical change is exactly equal to the sum total of the substances from which these products have been formed.

LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS:

The amount of heat given to a system is equal to the sum of the increase in the internal energy of the system and the external work done.
It is impossible to construct a continuous self-acting machine that can pump heat energy from a body at lower temperature to a body at higher temperature.
LENZ'S LAW:

When an electric current is induced by a change in magnetic field, the induced current is always in such a direction that its magnetic field opposes the change of field which causes the induction.
MASS - ENERGY EQUATION:

E = mc2, where E = quantity of energy released from the annihilation of matter of mass 'm', c = velocity of light. It implies that mass and energy are interchangeable.
NEWTON'S LAW OF COOLING:

The rate at which a body cools or loses its heat to its surroundings is proportional to the excess of mean temperature of the body over that of the surroundings, provided this temperature excess is not too large.
NEWTON'S UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION:

Every body in the universe attracts every other body with a force, directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION:

Everybody continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by a force [called Law of Inertia].
The rate of change of momentum of a moving body is proportional to the applied force and takes place in the direction of the force.
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
OHM'S LAW:

The amount of current flowing in an electric circuit is governed by the voltage of the battery on dynamo which powers it. In other words, the current through a conductor is directly proportional the potential difference across the conductor and inversely proportional to its resistance.
RECTILINEAR PROPAGATION OF LIGHT:

Light travels in a straight line. Total internal reflection takes place when a ray of light tries to pass from a denser medium to a rarer medium at an angle of incidence more than the critical angle.

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