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Monday 26 July 2010

The twenty-five tattvas of Sankhya Philosophy



त्रिगुणसाम्यावस्था प्रकृतिः। Nature (prakriti) is the state of equipoise of sattva, rajas and tamas. 

From Nature [proceeds] Mind (mahat); from Mind, Self-consciousness (ahamkara); from Self-consciousness, the five Subtle Elements (tanmatra), and both sets [external and internal] of Organs (indriya); and, from the Subtle Elements, the Gross Elements (sthula-bhuta). [Then there is] Soul (purusha). Such is the class of twenty-five.  Sankhya Karika 

25. Purusha – the sentient being (consciousness), the experiencer

24. Prakriti – primal nature (root of all insentient matter)

Antahkaranas – internal organs
23. Mahat-Buddhi – intelligence
22. Ahamkara – objective ego 
21. Manas – mind

Jnanendriyas – organs of knowledge
20. Stotra – organ of hearing (ears)
19. Tvak – organ of touching (skin)
18. Chakshu – organ of seeing (eyes)
17. Rasana – organ of tasting (palette)
16. Ghrana – organ of smelling (nose)

Karmendriyas – organs of action
15. Vak – organ of speech (tongue)
14. Pani – organ of grasping (hands)
13. Pada – organ of movement (feet)
12. Payu – organ of excretion (anus)
11. Upastha – organ of sex

Tanmatras – subtle elements
10. Shabda – sound
9. Sparsha – feel
8. Rupa – form
7. Rasa – taste
6. Gandha - smell

Mahabhutas – gross elements
5. Akasha – space
4. Vayu – air
3. Tejas – fire
2. Ap – water
1. Prithivi - earth

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